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The only laws of matter are those which our minds fabricate, and the only laws of mind are fabricated for it by matter. - James Clerk Maxwell -
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원작 Q& 는 생각외 깔끔한 문체에 군더더기가 거의 없는 잘 쓰여진 소설이다. 영화가 흥행하기 위해선 역시 잘 쓰여진 원작이 필요한 것 같다. 
이글을 보시는 분들은 원서로 꼭 읽어 보시길 바랍니다. 

Biryani, biriani, or beriani (Nastaliq script: بریانی; Devanagari script: बिरयानी; Bengali script: বিরিয়ানী; Tamil script: பிரியானி)

is a set of primarily South Asian rice-based foods made with spices, rice (usuallybasmati) and meat/vegetables. It was spread throughout the Middle East and South Asia (and Southeast Asia to an extent) by Muslim travellers and merchants, and is popular in PakistanIndiaBangladesh,IraqIranAfghanistan and Sri Lanka.

The name is derived[1] from the Persian word beryā(n) (بریان) which means "fried" or "roasted".


from the word pan in Urdu, پان, and Hindi, पान, is a South and South East Asian tradition which consists of chewing Betel leaf (Piper betle) combined with the areca nut. There are many regional variations.

Paan is chewed as a palate cleanser and a breath freshener. It is also commonly offered to guests and visitors as a sign of hospitality and as "ice breaker" to start conversation. It also has a symbolic value at ceremonies and cultural events in South and Southeast Asia. Paan makers may use mukhwas or tobacco as an ingredient in their paan fillings. Although most types of paan contain areca nuts as a filling, some do not. Other types include what is called sweet paan, where sugar, candied fruit and fennel seeds are used.

"Paan" is often mistakenly translated in the English language as "Betel nut", a misnomer, for the betel vine has no nuts. This name originated with the fact that the betel leaf is chewed along with the areca nut, the seed of the tropical palm Areca catechuSupari or adakka is the term for the nut in many Indic languages.

Although "paan" is generally used to refer to the leaves of the betel vine, the common use of this word refers mostly to the chewing mixture wrapped in the leaves.

Pan Dan (Urduپان دان) is used for serving Paan after a meal. This was a tradition in the Royal families of Pakistan and India and continues to this day.

Dupatta (Hindi: दुपट्टा, Urdu: دوپٹا, Bengali: অরনা), 

The other names for dupatta are Chadar in Pakistan orornichunri, ,chunni and orna (sometimes shortened to unni by many Gujaratis), Punjabi "Chunni" is a long scarf that is essential to many South Asian women's suits. Some "dupatta suits" include theshalwar kameez, the trouser suit, and the kurta. The dupatta is also worn over the South Asian outfit oflehengagharara or ghaghra- choli. The dupatta has long been a symbol of modesty in South Asiandress.

It is traditionally worn across both shoulders. However, the dupatta can also be worn like a cape around the entire torso. The material for the dupatta varies according to the suit: cotton, georgette, silk, chiffon, and more.

There are various modes of wearing the unsewn dupatta. When not draped over the head in the traditional style, it is usually worn with the middle portion of the dupatta resting on the chest like a garland with both ends thrown over each respective shoulder. When the dupatta resting is worn along with the salwar-kameez it is casually allowed to flow down the front and back.

The use of the dupatta has undergone a metamorphosis over time. In current fashions, the dupatta is frequently draped over one shoulder, and even over just the arms. Another recent trend is the short dupatta often seen with kurtas and Indo-Western clothing. Essentially, the dupatta is often treated as an accessory in current urban fashion. Nevertheless, the dupatta remains an integral part of Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani clothing.

Salwar kameez (also spelled shalwar kameez or shalwar qameez)

is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in South AsiaSalvars orshalvars are loose pajama-like trousers. The legs are wide at the top, and narrow at the bottom. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic. The side seams (known as the chaak) are left open below the waist-line, which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. In Afghanistan and Pakistan and India, the garment is worn by both sexes. In Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, it is most commonly a woman's garment, albeit still worn by some men.

Salwars are gathered at the waist and held up by a drawstring or an elastic belt. The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be quite narrow and made of fabric cut on the bias. In the latter case, they are known as churidars. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts, as shown in the illustration; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. The tailor's taste and skill are usually displayed not in the overall cut, but in the shape of the neckline and the decoration of the kameez.

When women wear the salwar kameez, they usually wear a long scarf or shawl called a dupatta around the head or neck. For Muslim women, the dupatta is a less stringent alternative to thechador or burqa (see hijab and purdah). For Sikh and Hindu women (especially those from northern India, where the salwar kameez is most popular), the dupatta is useful when the head must be covered, as in a Gurdwara or a Temple, or the presence of elders. For other women, the dupatta is simply a stylish accessory that can be worn over one shoulder or draped around the chest and over both shoulders.

Modern versions of the feminine salwar kameez can be much less modest than traditional versions. The kameez may be cut with a plunging neckline, sewn in diaphanous fabrics, or styled in sleeveless or cap-sleeve designs. The kameez side seams may be split high up to the waistline and, it may be worn with the salwar slung low on the hips. When women wear semi-transparent kameez (mostly as a party dress), they wear a choli or a cropped camisole underneath it.

The Shalwar kameez is sometimes known as "Punjabi suit," in Britain[1] and Canada.[2] In Britain, especially during the last two decades, the garment has been transformed from an everyday garment worn by immigrant South Asian women from the Punjab region to one with mainstream, and even high-fashion, appeal.[3]

In India, the garment was originally confined to the North, but as a convenient and modest alternative to a sari - and also as one that flatters practically any body-type - it has become popular across the nation. By varying the fabric, color and the level of embroidery and decoration, the salwar-kameez can be formal, casual, dressy, or plain; and it can also be made to suit practically all climates.

The dhoti or doti in Hindi called suriya in Assamese, pancha in Telugu, Laacha in Punjabi,mundu in Malayalam, dhuti in Bangla, veshti in Tamil, dhotar in Marathi and panche inKannada, 

Styles of dhoti seen in Amaravati sculptures of theSatavahana dynasty (from 2nd century BC to 3rd century AD). The draped waistbands are known as kamarbands, and are sometimes accompanied by a buckle at the waist (Fig 10).

is the traditional garment of men's wear in India. It is a rectangular piece of unstitched cloth, usually around 7 yards long, wrapped around the waist and the legs, and knotted at the waist.

In northern India, the garment is worn with a Kurta on top, the combination known simply as "dhoti kurta", or a dhuti panjabi in the East. In Tamil Nadu, it is worn with an angavastram (another unstitched cloth draped over the shoulders) or else with a chokka (shirt) in Andhra Pradesh orjubba (a local version of kurta). The lungi is a similar piece of cloth worn in similar manner, though only on informal occasions. The lungi is not as long and is basically a bigger version of a towel worn to fight the extremely hot weather in India. The sarong is another similar item of clothing.

The dhoti is considered formal wear all over the country. It is eminently acceptable wherever "formal wear" is bespoken or enjoined in India. Apart from all government and traditional family functions, the dhoti is also deemed acceptable at posh country clubs and at other establishments that enforce strict formal dress codes. The garment enjoys a similar, eminent status across the Indian subcontinent, particularly in BangladeshSri Lanka, and the Maldives. In many of these countries, the garment has become something of a mascot of cultural assertion, being greatly favoured by politicians and cultural icons such as classical musicians, poets and literatteurs. Thus, the dhotifor many has taken on a more cultural nuance while the 'suit-and-tie' or, in less formal occasions, the ubiquitous shirt and pants, are seen as standard formal and semi-formal wear.

In southern India, the garment is worn at all cultural occasions and traditional ceremonies. The bride-groom in a south Indian wedding and the host/main male participant of other rituals and ceremonies have necessarily to be dressed in the traditional pancha while performing the ceremonies.

Unspoken rules of etiquette govern the way the pancha is worn. In south India, men will occasionally fold the garment in half to resemble a short skirt when working, cycling, etc., and this reveals the legs from the knee downwards. However, it is considered disrespectful to speak to men or to one's social inferiors with the pancha folded up in this manner. When faced with such a social situation, the fold of the package is loosened with an imperceptible yank of the hand and allowed to cover the legs completely.

Pancha are worn by western adherents of the Hare Krishna sect, which is known for promoting a distinctive dress code amongst its practitioners, with followers wearing saffron or white coloured cloth, folded in the traditional style. Mahatma Gandhi invariably wore a pancha on public occasions[citation needed], but he was well aware that it was considered "indecent" in other countries and was shocked when a friend wore one in London. (See The Story of My Experiments with Truth/Part I/Narayan Hemchandra.)

The genteel Bengali man is stereotyped in popular culture as wearing expensive perfumes, a lightpanjabi and an elaborate dhuti with rich pleats ,the front corner of the cloth being stiffed like aJapanese fan and holding it in his hand; whilst feverishly discussing politics and literature. It is considered the most elegant costume and is worn at bengali weddings and cultural festivals.

Over the past century or more, western styles of clothing have been steadily gaining ground in the region, gradually rendering the pancha a garment for home-wear, not generally worn to work. It is less popular among the youth in major metropolises and is viewed as rustic, unfashionable and not 'hip' enough for the younger age-set. However, use of the pancha as a garment of daily use and homewear continues largely unabated.

Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی, Hindi: शेरवानी)

is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. It is worn over the Kurta and ChuridarKhara pajama, a shalwar. It can be distinguished from the achkan by the fact that it is often made from heavier suiting fabrics, and by the presence of a lining.

The Sherwani during the period of British India in 18th century, as a fusion of the Shalwar Kameezwith the British frock coat. It was gradually adopted by most of the Indian aristocracy, mostly Muslim, and later by the general population, as a more westernized form of traditional attire.

It is the national dress of Pakistan for men, as it is not specifically associated with any of the provinces. The Founder of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah frequently wore the Sherwani. Most government officials in Pakistan such as the President and Prime Minister wear the formal blackSherwani over the shalwar qameez on state occasions and national holidays.

In India, it is generally worn for formal occasions in winter by those of North Indian descent, especially those from Uttar Pradesh and Hyderabadi muslims.The Sherwani is closely associated with the nation's first Prime MinisterJawaharlal Nehru. This led to a modified version of Sherwani to be known as the Nehru Jacket which is popular in India..

Many South Asian grooms wear them as wedding dress. Sherwanis are usually embroidered or detailed in some way.

Also, in Pakistan, Sherwanis for women are becoming popular.[1]

Sherwanis have been designed by Rohit Bal for British Airways cabin crews who are on Southern Asian flights.

  noun Brit. used with reference to a very thorough search: the police went over the area with a fine toothcombining

  exclamation Brit. informal goodbye. 

The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit भगवद् गीताBhagavad Gītā, "Song of God")

is an important Sanskrit Hindu scripture. It is revered as a sacred scripture of Hinduism,[1][2]and considered as one of the most important religious classics of the world.[3] The Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Mahabharata, comprised of 700 verses. The teacher of the Bhagavad Gita is Krishna, who is regarded by the Hindus as the supreme manifestation of the Lord Himself,[3] and is referred to within as Bhagavan—the divine one.[4] The Bhagavad Gita is commonly referred to as The Gita for short.

The content of the Gita is the conversation between Krishna and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra war. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma, Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic[5] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide toHindu philosophy and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. Other noted experts have described it as a lighthouse of eternal wisdom that has the ability to inspire any man or woman to supreme accomplishment and enlightenment. [6] During the discourse, Krishna reveals his identity as the Supreme Being Himself (Svayam bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of his divine universal form.

The Bhagavad Gita is also called Gitopanishad as well as Yogopanishad, implying its status as an Upanishad, or a Vedantic scripture.[7] Since the Gita is drawn from the Mahabharata, it is included in Smriti texts. However, being one of the Upanishads, it has a status of śruti, or revealed knowledge.[8][9] Since the Bhagavad Gita represents a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is also called as the Upanishad of the Upanishads.[1] The Gita is also called a mokshashastra, or scripture of liberation, since it deals with the science of the absolute and lays down the way to emancipation.[10]

Tiffin is lunch, or any light meal.

Tiffin Wallah translates as one who carries the box. Tiffin is an old English word for a light lunch, and also the name of the multi-compartment metal lunch box that carries it. The Tiffin Wallah originated over a century ago when the many Indians working for British companies disliked the food served at work. Tiffin service was created to bring home cooking to the workplace. Today the city's 5,000 tiffin-wallahs deliver 200,000 tiffin-boxes filled with home-cooked food each day. According to a recent survey, there is only one mistake in every 16,000,000 deliveries and the system has registered a performance rating of 99.999999. Prince Charles is a fan and patron of the Tiffin Wallahs and countless businesses and corporations study the system to learn of its success and efficiency.

Tiffin entered the language at the very beginning of the nineteenth century, perhaps because the English fashion for eating dinner mid-afternoon was giving way under the influence of the Indian climate to a main meal taken later in the day, requiring a lighter midday meal and a name for it. Why the much older luncheon wasn’t used isn’t clear. Instead, the English in India borrowed tiffing (gerund of obsolete English tiff to eat between meals) (tiffing a quaffing, a drinking), an old English dialect or slang word for taking a little drink or sip. The word is still widely used in India for any hot light meal or snack taken at any time during the day.[1]

In Mumbai (formerly Bombay), the term tiffin-wallah is sometimes heard, though the more common term is dabbawallah. Lunches are cooked at home by workers’ wives and then transported, often by train, perhaps 20 or 30 miles to their husbands' workplaces, each three-tiered tiffin-carrier or dabba probably passing through several hands in a sophisticated and efficient cooperative process. Those who deliver the meals by bicycle on the final stage of their journeys are the tiffin-wallahs or dabbawallahs.

An early example of tiffin is from a guide book, Cordiner’s Ceylon, of 1808: “Many persons are in the habit of sitting down to a repast at one o’clock, which is called tiffen, and is in fact an early dinner”.

In South India, especially in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, and in Nepal, the term Tiffin is generally used to mean an in-between-meals snack. Most road-side restaurants in Tamil Nadu will have a board displaying 'Tiffin Ready'. It is customary to be offered a tiffin as a courtesy when you visit an Andhra orTamil residence. The word is basically a part of Indian English and hence not very much in use outside the country.

Outside South India, like Mumbai, the word "Tiffin" is mostly used for light lunches prepared for working Indian men by their wives after they have left for work, and forwarded to them by dabbawalas, sometimes known as tiffin wallahs, who use a complex system to get thousands of tiffin-boxes to their destinations. This system delivers thousands of meals a day and does not use any documents as many dabbawalas are illiterate. It has been claimed that the tiffin delivery system of Mumbai is so efficient that there is only one mistake for every million deliveries[1].

The lunches are packed in stainless steel or tin boxes with carry handles, also sometimes called tiffins or tiffin-boxes. A common approach is to put rice in one box, dal in another and yet other items in the third or fourth. The other items could be breads, such as naan, vegetable curry and finally a sweet.

Another modern usage of the word also applies to lunches that may be packed by parents for children attending school, to provide a lunchduring the school day if the student eats lunch at school.

In some former British colonies, the stacked porcelain or metal round trays with handles are called tiffin carriers (similar to the dabba transported by a dabbawala), and small-scale caterers use them for delivering meals to individual homes.

dabbawala (Marathi डब्बावाला, literally, box person, see Etymology),

also spelled asdabbawalla or dabbawallah is a person in the Indian city of Mumbai who is employed in a unique service industry whose primary business is collecting the freshly cooked food in lunch boxes from the residences of the office workers (mostly in the suburbs), delivering it to their respective workplaces and returning back the empty boxes by using various modes of transport. "Tiffin" is an old-fashioned English word for a light lunch, and sometimes for the box it is carried in. For this reason, thedabbawalas are sometimes called Tiffin Wallahs.

The word "Dabbawala" in Marathi when literally translated, means "one who carries a box". "Dabba" means a box (usually a cylindrical tin or aluminium container), while "wala" is a suffix, denoting a doer of the preceding word[1]. The closest meaning of the Dabbawala in English would be the "lunch box delivery man". Though this profession seems to be simple, it is actually a highly specialized service in Mumbai which is over a century old and has become integral to the cultural life of this city.

The concept of the dabbawala originated when India was under British rule. Many British people who came to the colony did not like the local food, so a service was set up to bring lunch to these people in their workplace straight from their home. Nowadays, although Indian business men are the main customers for the dabbawalas, increasingly affluent families employ them instead for lunch delivery to their school-aged children. Even though the services provided might include cooking, it primarily consists of only delivery either home-made or in that latter case, food ordered from a restaurant.

At 19,373 persons per km², Mumbai is India's most densely populated city with a huge flow of traffic. Because of this, lengthy commutes to workplaces are common, with many workers traveling by train.

Instead of going home for lunch or paying for a meal in a café, many office workers have a cooked meal sent either from their home, or sometimes from a caterer who delivers it to them as well, essentially cooking and delivering the meal in lunch boxes and then having the lunch boxes collected and re-sent the next day. This is usually done for a monthly fee. The meal is cooked in the morning and sent in lunch boxes carried by dabbawalas, who have a complex association and hierarchy across the city.

A collecting Dabbawala on a bicycle
Dabbawalas in action at aMumbai Suburban Railwaystation.

collecting dabbawala, usually on bicycle, collects dabbas from homes or from the dabba makers. The dabbas have some sort of distinguishing mark on them, such as a color or symbol. The dabbawala then takes them to a designated sorting place, where he and other collecting dabbawalas sort (and sometimes bundle) the lunch boxes into groups. The grouped boxes are put in the coaches of trains, with markings to identify the destination of the box (usually there is a designated car for the boxes). The markings include the rail station to unload the boxes and the building address where the box has to be delivered.

At each station, boxes are handed over to a local dabbawala, who delivers them. The empty boxes, after lunch, are again collected and sent back to the respective houses.

[edit]The Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Trust

This service was originated in 1880. Later, Mahadeo Havaji Bachche, started a lunch delivery service with about 100 men.[2] In 1930, he informally attempted to unionize the dabbawallas. Later a charitable trust was registered in 1956 under the name of Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Trust. The commercial arm of this trust was registered in 1968 as Mumbai Tiffin Box Carriers Association. The present President of the association is Raghunath Medge. Nowadays, the service often includes cooking of foods in addition to the delivery.

[edit]Economic analysis

It is estimated that the dabbawala industry grows by 5-10% each year.

Each dabbawala, regardless of role, gets paid about two to four thousand rupees per month (around 25–50 British pounds or 40–80 US dollars).[3]

More than 175,000 or 200,000 lunch boxes get moved every day by an estimated 4,500 to 5,000dabbawalas, all with an extremely small nominal fee and with utmost punctuality. According to a recent survey, there is only one mistake in every 6,000,000 deliveries, statistically equivalent to a Six Sigma(99.9999) rating[4]

The BBC has produced a documentary on dabbawalas, and Prince Charles, during his visit to India, visited them (he had to fit in with their schedule, since their timing was too precise to permit any flexibility). Owing to the tremendous publicity, some of the dabbawalas were invited to give guest lectures in topbusiness schools of India, which is very unusual. Most remarkably in the eyes of many Westerners, the success of the dabbawala trade has involved no advanced technology.[5]

The New York Times reported in 2007 that the 125-year-old dabbawala industry continues to grow at a rate of 5–10% per year.[6]

[edit]Low-tech and lean

A typical dabbawala lunch.
dabba, or Indian-style tiffin box.

Although the service remains essentially low-tech, with the barefoot delivery men as the prime movers, the dabbawalas have started to embrace modern information technology, and now allow booking for delivery through SMS. A web site, mydabbawala.com, has also been added to allow for on-line booking, in order to keep up with the times.[7] An on-line poll on the web site ensures that customer feedback is given pride of place. The success of the system depends on teamwork and time management that would be the envy of a modern manager. Such is the dedication and commitment of the barely literate and barefoot delivery men (there are only a few delivery women) who form links in the extensive delivery chain, that there is no system of documentation at all. A simple colour coding system doubles as an ID system for the destination and recipient. There are no multiple elaborate layers of management either — just three layers. Each dabbawala is also required to contribute a minimum capital in kind, in the form of two bicycles, a wooden crate for the tiffins, white cotton kurta-pyjamas, and the white trademark Gandhi topi (cap). The return on capital is ensured by monthly division of the earnings of each unit.

[edit]Uninterrupted services

The service is uninterrupted even on the days of severe weather such as Mumbai's characteristicmonsoons. The local dabbawalas at the receiving and the sending ends are known to the customers personally, so that there is no question of lack of trust. Also, they are well accustomed to the local areas they cater to, which allows them to access any destination with ease. Occasionally, people communicate between home and work by putting messages inside the boxes. However, this was more common before the accessibility of instant telecommunications.

Urvashi (Urvaśī, from uru "wide" +  "to extend", "widely extending")

is an Apsaras (nymph) in Hindu mythology. She was a celestial maiden in Indra's court and was considered the most beautiful of all the Apsarases.

She became the wife of king Pururavas (Purūrávas, from purū+rávas "crying much or loudly"), an ancient chief of the lunar raceShBr 11.5.1, and treated in Kalidasa's drama Vikramōrvaśīyam.

Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' had written an Epic poetry with the title Urvashi for which he got the Jnanpith Award in 1972.

Urvashi found the atmosphere in heaven stifling. Everything was cold and synthetic including the colours and the fragrances of the flowers. Urvashi often stole to the Earth at night with her friends to feel the wet dew under her feet and the soft breeze against her body. On the other hand Pururava envied the Gods. He was a regular invitee to Indra's court and was haunted at night by the grandeur he saw there. He would then take his chariot above the clouds and hurtle through the skies at break-neck speed. It was on such an occasion that the two met.

Urvashi was returning to heaven just before dawn with the other apsaras, when she was abducted by a demon. Pururava saw this and chased the demon on his chariot and freed Urvashi from his clutches. The brief period their bodies touched changed their lives forever. For the first time Urvasi experienced the warm flesh of a mortal, for the first time she heard blood pounding in veins and for the first time she heard the inhalation and exhalation of breath. Pururavas had seen Urvashi in Indra’s court before and to actually be close to the most beautiful woman in heaven exhilarated him. Pururava left Urvashi with her friends but when they parted each was madly in love with the other but unsure whether the love was being reciprocated.

Urvashi was a woman in a man’s world and in keeping with the tradition of the times expected the man to make the first move. Pururavas on the other hand feared rejection because he did not expect the pride of heaven to come and live with a mortal, and hence did not approach Urvashi. So both pined for each other. Urvashi was giving a dance performance in which she was portraying Vishnu’s consort, Lakshmi. Her concentration was with Pururavas and she called out her lover’s name instead of saying “Vishnu”. Her teacher, the sage Bharat, got offended and cursed Urvashi. “You will get to live with the person you are thinking about,” he said, “And you will also give birth to his son. But you will have to choose between the father and son, because the day they see each other you will have to leave them both and return to heaven.”

The curse actually emboldened Urvashi. She wasn’t even thinking about children, she was sure to get her love. She sent a friend to earth to find out about Pururava. The friend located the king in the garden of Gandhmadan (meaning intoxicating fragrance), whining away for his ladylove. The stage was set. Urvashi left heaven and went to the waiting arms of Pururava.

Pururavas was a married man. His wife was Aushiniri. They did not have any children and as was the custom of the time, the wife was blamed for this. So when Pururavas met Urvashi he was already distanced from his wife and hence was more easily drawn towards the apsara.

He decided to live with Urvashi in the forest of Gandhmadan. He arranged for all princely comforts there as also for running the affairs of state. They spent the time in love, in discourse; Urvashi sang and danced for Pururavas; the king was content to have her with him. For Urvashi this was a unique opportunity to live with mortals and to experience their joys and sufferings, while Pururavas reveled in the fact that the pride of heaven and Indra's favourite was his and his alone. In fact the only discordant note in their ethereal music was the argument whether the Gods are more fortunate or mortals.

An epic has been written on this debate by the famous Hindi poet, Dinkar, a passage from which bears translation. Urvashi is praising the fire that burns in the souls of mortals.

Till there is fire in the soul, the universe is your friend. Your chariot flies in the heavens and with the clouds does play. Till there is fire in the soul, the ocean looks up to you And its infinite wealth and treasure at your feet does lay. The fierce lion passes by; the dense forests give way, Even the towering mountain peaks bow down before you. Till there is fire in the soul, great Indra pays his respects And beautiful Urvashi descends to the earth for you.

But where there are givers there will be lovers' tiffs and Urvashi and Pururavas are said to have had their share. Once Urvashi and Pururava were walking along the bank of a stream in animated conversation. Pururavas noticed a maiden knee deep in water washing clothes and for a second his concentration faltered. Urvashi went into a fit of jealous rage and ran away. So maddened was she that she stepped into Kartikeya's grove. Kartikeya is the God of War and women were forbidden to enter his grove and if they did so they would be turned into a creeper. This was the fate Urvashi met. For many months Pururava searched for Urvashi. He prayed to the Gods for their favour. He recounted the numerous times he had fought shoulder to shoulder with them in their incessant war against the Demons. Kartikeya relented and gave Pururavas a crimson jewel and asked him to rub a particular creeper in his grove with it. When the king did so Urvashi was freed.

By now everyone, including Aushiniri had accepted Urvashi as the king's consort. There was no need for them to stay at Gandhmadan. The two went to the capital city of their kingdom and continued to enjoy each other's company as before. In all Urvashi and Pururava spent sixteen years together. The gem with which Pururava had freed Urvashi in Kartikeya's grove was Urvashi's favourite. One day a raven snatched it from the hands of Urvashi's maid. Pururava raised his bow but before he could fire an arrow someone else hit the bird and it fell into the palace courtyard. The arrow was retrieved and given to the king. It was the custom that each arrow bore the name of its owner and this arrow said Ayu the son of Pururavas and Urvashi.

It had so happened that Urvashi had desired to bear a child, so without Pururavas' knowledge she had conceived and given birth to his son. The incident at Kartikeya's grove was a ploy by the Gods to give Urvashi time for bearing the child. The reason for the secrecy lay in the curse sage Bharat had given Urvashi many years earlier. "You will have to choose between your son or your lover, for the day the two meet you will have to return to heaven." The lover in Urvashi had yet not been satisfied so she had left the newborn child in sage Chyavan's hermitage in the care of his wife Satyavati.

Sage Chyavan explained everything to the astounded king. The time had come for Ayu to meet Pururavas, but unfortunately the same time necessitated the departure of Urvashi. Pururava crowned Ayu as King and left for Gandhmadan, where he had spent memorable seasons with the apsara. But the story does not end here. The Demons attacked Heaven and with Pururava's help the Gods succeeded in driving them away. In return Indra allowed Urvashi to go back to Gandhmadan where she spent many more years with Pururava and bore him many more sons.

This story is captured by Sanskrit poet Kalidas in his play Vikramuurvashiiya


in existence since 1959[1], is a brand of adhesives, manufactured and marketed by Pidilite Industries Ltd .

According to Pidilite Industries Ltd. the Fevicol brand enjoys upwards of 60% market share of the adhesive market in India[2]. For its advertising, Fevicol won a Cannes Lions Silver award in 2002[3] and has won several ABBY awards[4]Ogilvy & Mather, the advertising agency responsible for the brand's advertising claim, "From the physical aspects of the word to the metaphorical manifestations - 'Fevicol is Bonding and bonding is Fevicol' in the mindspace of people at large."[5]

It is not uncommon for the brand name to be used as a metaphor to suggest a strong bond in informal conversations, writing[6], jokes, or films. For instance, in the film Masti (2004), Meet Mehta, the character played by Vivek Oberoi remarks,

"Itni badi chipku hai ki Fevicol wale use sponsor kar denge."

Loosely translated from Hindi as,

"She is so hard to get rid of that the people responsible for Fevicol would sponsor her."[7]

a stuffed pastry, is a common snack in South AsiaSoutheast AsiaCentral Asia, the Horn of Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. It generally consists of a fried triangular- or tetrahedron-shaped pastry shell with a savory filling of spiced potatoesonionpeascoriander, and sometimes fresh paneer. In a variety called chamuça they are also very popular in Portugal.

Samosas have become popular in the United KingdomSouth Africa, and in Canada and the United States. They are often called "samboosa" or sambusac by the Arabs. In South Africa they are often called "samoosa".[8] Frozen samosas are increasingly available in grocery stores in Canada, the United Statesand the United Kingdom. They are called "samusa" in Burmese, and are an extremely popular snack.

While samosas are traditionally fried, many Westerners prefer to bake them, as this is more convenient and healthier (this could be seen as an example of fusion cuisine). Variations using phyllo[9] or flourtortillas[10] are not unheard of in Western countries.

Portuguese and Goan beef or pork chamuças are very popular. Due to Portuguese influence, chamuçasare also very common in several countries along the Atlantic coast of Africa (such as Cape Verde,Guinea-BissauSão Tomé and PríncipeAngola) and Mozambique.

Pashtuns (Pashtoپښتون PaṣtūnPaxtūn, also rendered as PushtunsPakhtuns,Pukhtuns), also called Pathans[11] (UrduپٹھانHindi: पठान Paṭhān), ethnic Afghans,[12]

are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in Afghanistan and in the North-West Frontier ProvinceFederally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistanprovinces of western Pakistan. The Pashtuns are typically characterized by their usage of the Pashto language and practice of Pashtunwali, which is a traditional code of conduct and honor.[13]

Pashtun society consists of many tribes and clans which were rarely politically united,[14] until the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747.[3] Pashtuns played a vital role during the Great Game as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. For over 250 years, they reigned as the dominant ethnic group in Afghanistan. More recently, the Pashtuns gained worldwide attention after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and with the rise and fall of the Taliban, since they are the main ethnic contingent in the movement. Pashtuns are also an important community in Pakistan, where they are prominently represented in the military and are the second-largest ethnic group.[15]

The Pashtuns are the world's largest (patriarchal) segmentary lineage ethnic group.[16] The total population of the group is estimated to be around 42 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979.[17] There are an estimated 60 major Pashtun tribes and more than 400 sub-clans.[18]

A chawl

is a name for a type of building found in India. They are often 4 to 5 stories with about 10 to 20tenements, referred to as kholis, literally meaning 'the room' on each floor. Many chawls can be found in Mumbai where they were constructed in abundance to house the people migrating to Mumbai because of its booming cotton mills and overall strong economy.

A usual tenement in a chawl consists of one all purpose room, that functions both as a living and sleeping space, and a kitchen that also serves as a dining room. A frequent practice is for the kitchen to also serve as a bedroom for a newly married couple, to give them some degree of privacy. Average rents run about Rs. 1,000 equivalent to about 20 USD per month.[citation needed]

Families on a floor have to share a common block of latrines, each block comprising typically 4 to 5 latrines. Tenements with private bathrooms are highly sought after and may cost a premium. Typically they may be available for over 50% the price of normal chawl.

People living in a chawl have little privacy. Due to the close nature of the quarters, trivial news and gossip travels quickly. On the other hand, however, this intimate living situation also leads to a friendly atmosphere, with support networks akin to familial relationships.

The distinctive cultural features that arise from this unique situations have been featured in plays, novels like Slumdog Millionaire akaQ&A by Vikas Swarup and films like Katha, a Hindi comedy movie directed by Sai Paranjpe. [1]

Jainism (pronounced /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/)

is one of the oldest religions that originated inIndia. Jains believe that every soul is divine and has the potential to achieve God-consciousness. Any soul which has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called jina (Conqueror or Victor). Jainism is the path to achieve this state. Jainism is often referred to as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) or Shraman Dharma or the religion of Nirgantha or religion of "Vratyas" by ancient texts.

Jainism was revived by a lineage of 24 enlightened ascetics called tirthankaras[1]culminating with Parsva (9th century BCE) and Mahavira (6th century BCE).[2][3][4][5][6] In the modern world, it is a small but influential religious minority with as many as 10 million followers in India,[7] and successful growing immigrant communities in North AmericaWestern Europe, the Far EastAustralia and elsewhere.[8]

Jains have sustained the ancient Shraman (श्रमण) or ascetic religion and have significantly influenced other religious, ethicalpolitical and economic spheres in India.

Jains have an ancient tradition of scholarship and have the highest degree of literacy in India.[9] Jain libraries are India's oldest.[10]

Keshto Mukherjee (Bengaliকেষ্টো মুখার্জী) (died 1985)

was an Indian actor. He specialised in comic drunkard roles in the Hindi films.


is the lack of critical cognitive function and level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain. The word derives from the Latin stupure, meaning insensible. Being characterised by impairments of reactions to externalstimuli, it usually appears in infectious diseases, complicated toxic states, severe hypothermiamental illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia, severe clinicaldepression), vascular illnesses (e.g. hypertensive encephalopathy), neoplasms (e.g. brain tumors), vitamin D deficiency and so on.

Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene weldingoxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.)

and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouche and Charles Picard were the first to develop a oxygen-acetylene welding machine in 1903.[1]

Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes, though in recent years it has become less popular in industrial applications. However, it is still widely used for welding pipes and tubes, as well as repair work. It is also frequently well-suited, and favored, for fabricating some types of metal-based artwork. Oxyfuel equipment is versatile, lending itself not only to some sorts of iron or steel welding but also to brazing, braze-welding, metal heating (for bending and forming), and also oxyfuel cutting.

In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal. The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler material depends upon the metals to be welded.

In oxy-fuel cutting, a cutting torch is used to heat metal to kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen then trained on the metal combines with the metal which then flows out of the cut (kerf) as an oxide slag [2].

Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not considered oxy-fuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (Oxy-fuel welding/cutting generally requires two tanks, fuel and oxygen). Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank torch. As such, single tank torches are typically used only for soldering and brazing, rather than welding.

Note: Sometimes a metal-cutting torch is colloquially called a "gas-axe", "smoke wrench", "hot wrench", "blue wrench" or "hot blue spanner" (in Britain). Colloquially, many people mistakenly call a welding torch a blowtorch. In the USA the word blowtorch is also used for what in Britain is called a blowlamp.


Set of stumps

Most of the time, the wicket is one of the two sets of three stumps and two bails at either end of thepitch (dimensions). The wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ballfrom hitting the wicket.

The origin of the word is from the standard definition of wicket as a small gate. Historically, cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate.

[edit]Dismissing a batsman

Wicket also refers to the event of a batsman getting out. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket if dismissed by a bowler, while the bowler is said to have taken his wicket. The number of wickets taken is the primary measure of a bowler's ability.

For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowledrun outstumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 28 of the Laws of cricket. The wicket is put down if a bail is completely removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the ground by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person (or by any part of his clothing or equipment becoming detached from his person), a fielder (with his hand or arm) and providing that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. The wicket is also put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner.

If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.

If however both bails are off, a fielder must pull one of the three stumps out of the ground and strike it with the ball in order to run a batsman out.

If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, because, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball.


The sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a specifically numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings.

  • The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until a first batsman gets out.
  • The second wicket partnership is from when a first batsman gets out until a second batsman gets out.
  • etc...
  • The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when a ninth batsman gets out until a tenth batsman gets out.

[edit]Winning by number of wickets

A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets. This means that they were batting last, and reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. A team's innings ends when ten batsmen are dismissed, so, for example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets.

[edit]The pitch

The word wicket is also sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and commonly understood by cricket followers. This usage probably derives from the days when the outfield was kept short by grazing sheep on it and the playing surface, which was specially prepared, was protected from them by a light wicker fence around it. Since many regular grounds had resident bat-makers it is quite possible that the branches cut off from the willow wood used for the bats formed all or part of this fence.[citation needed] Much willow is employed in making wicker-work.

The term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp, typically due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the job of defending the stumps that much more difficult. The full phrase is thought to have originally been "to bat on a sticky wicket." Such pitches were commonplace at all levels of the game (i.e. up to Test Match level) until the late 1950s.

Doordarshan (Hindiदूरदर्शन; literally Tele-Vision)

is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, a public service broadcaster nominated by the Government of India. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters.

The living sloths

comprise six species of medium-sized mammals that live in Central and South America belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae, part of the order Pilosa. The sloth's taxonomic suborder is Folivora, while some call it Phyllophaga. Both names mean "leaf-eaters"; the first is derived from Latin, the second from ancient Greek. Tribal names include RittoRitand Ridette, mostly forms of the word "sleep", "eat" and "dirty" from Tagaeri tribe of Huaorani.

The living sloths are omnivores. They may eat insects, small lizards, and carrion, but their diet consists mostly of buds, tender shoots, and leaves, mainly of Cecropia trees. They have made extraordinary adaptations to an arboreal browsing lifestyle. Leaves, their main food source, provide very little energy or nutrition and do not digest easily. Sloths therefore have very large, specialized, slow-acting stomachs with multiple compartments in which symbiotic bacteria break down the tough leaves. As much as two-thirds of a well-fed sloth's body-weight consists of the contents of its stomach, and the digestive process can take a month or more to complete.

Even so, leaves provide little energy, and sloths deal with this by a range of economy measures: they have very low metabolic rates (less than half of that expected for a creature of their size), and maintain low body temperatures when active (30 to 34 °C or 86 to 93 °F), and still lower temperatures when resting.

Although unable to survive outside the tropical rainforests of South and Central America, within that environment sloths are outstandingly successful creatures: they can account for as much as half the total energy consumption and two-thirds of the total terrestrial mammalian biomass in some areas.[citation needed] Of the six living species, only one, the Maned Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus torquatus), has a classification of "endangered" at present. The ongoing destruction of South America's forests, however, may soon prove a threat to other sloth species.

The Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) 오리너구리.

is a semi-aquatic mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. Together with the four species of echidna, it is one of the five extant species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. It is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species have been found in the fossil record.

The bizarre appearance of this egg-laying, venomousduck-billed, beaver-tailed, otter-footed mammal baffled European naturalists when they first encountered it, with some considering it an elaborate fraud. It is one of the few venomous mammals; the male Platypus has a spur on the hind foot that delivers a venom capable of causing severe pain to humans. The unique features of the Platypus make it an important subject in the study of evolutionary biology and a recognisable and iconic symbol of Australia; it has appeared as a mascot at national events and is featured on thereverse of the Australian 20 cent coin. The platypus is the animal emblem of the state of New South Wales.[4]

Until the early 20th century it was hunted for its fur, but it is now protected throughout its range. Although captive breeding programs have had only limited success and the Platypus is vulnerable to the effects of pollution, it is not under any immediate threat.

Qutab Minar (also spelled Qutab or QutubUrduقطب منار),

a tower in DelhiIndia, is the world's tallest brick minaret.[2] Construction commenced in 1193 under the orders of India's first Muslim rulerQutb-ud-din Aibak, and the topmost storey of the minaret was completed in 1386 by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The Qutab Minar is notable for being one of the earliest and most prominent examples ofIndo-Islamic architecture.

It is surrounded by several other ancient and medieval structures and ruins, collectively known asQutb complex. The complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Delhi.

The Qutb Minar is 72 meters high (237.8 ft) with 379 steps leading to the top. The diameter of the base is 14.3 meters wide while the top floor measures 2.75 meters in diameter. Surrounding the building are many fine examples of Indian artwork from the time it was built in 1193. A second tower was in construction and planned to be taller than the Qutb Minar itself. Its construction ended abruptly when it was about 12 meters tall.The name of this tower is given as Alau Minar and construction of recent studies shows that this structure has been tilted in one direction.

Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, commenced construction of the Qutb Minar in 1193, but could only complete its base. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more storeys and, in 1386, Firuz Shah Tughluqconstructed the fifth and the last storey. The development of architectural styles from Aibak to Tughluq are quite evident in the minaret. Like earlier towers erected by the Ghaznavids and Ghurids inAfghanistan, the Qutb Minar comprises several superposed flanged and cylindrical shafts, separated by balconies carried on Muqarnas corbels. The minaret is made of fluted red sandstonecovered with intricate carvings and verses from the Qur'an. The Qutb Minar is itself built on the ruins of Lal Kot, the Red Citadel in the city of Dhillika, the capital of the Tomars and the Chauhans, the lastHindu rulers of Delhi.Qutub Minar was built by demolishing hundreds of Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples and the stones from these temples were even used in building the minar(which one can see on the notice boards posted by ASI on the minar site).ASI stands for Archaeological Survey of India.http://asi.nic.in/

The purpose for building this monument has been variously speculated upon. It could take the usual role of a minaret, calling people for prayer in the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, the earliest extant mosque built by the Delhi Sultans. Other possibilities are a tower of victory, a monument signifying the might of Islam, or a watch tower for defense. Controversy also surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Many historians believe that the Qutb Minar was named after the first Turkish sultan, Qutb-ud-din Aibak but others contend that it was named in honour of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, a saint from Baghdad who came to live in India and was greatly venerated by Iltutmish.

The nearby Iron Pillar is one of the world's foremost metallurgical curiosities, standing in the famous Qutb complex. According to the traditional belief, anyone who can encircle the entire column with their arms, with their back towards the pillar, can have their wish granted. Because of the corrosive qualities of sweat the government has built a fence around it for safety.

Vermilion, sometimes spelled vermillion

when found naturally occurring, is an opaque orangish red pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. Chemically, the pigment is mercuric sulfide, HgS, and like all mercury compounds it is toxic. Its name is derived from the French vermeil which was used to mean any red dye, and which itself comes from vermiculum, a red dye made from the insect Kermes vermilio.[1] The words for the color red in Portuguese (vermelho) and Catalan (vermell) derive from this term.

Today, vermilion is most commonly artificially produced by reacting mercury with moltensulfur. Most naturally produced vermilion comes from cinnabar mined in China, giving rise to its alternative name of China red.

Vermilion has largely been replaced in painting by the pigment cadmium red, a pigment that is less reactive because of the replacement of mercury with cadmium, especially in certain applications such as watercolors. The last mainstream commercial source in watercolors was from the Belgian artist's materials company Blockx, although the pigment can still be obtained in oils, where it is considered more stable. Unlike mercuric sulfide, cadmium sulfide is available in a large range of warm hues, including hues obtained by the addition of selenium or zinc. The range is from lemon yellow to a dull deep red, sometimes referred to as "cadmium purple".

Vermilion is also the name of the typical color of the natural ground pigment, which is a bright red tinged with orange. It is somewhat similar to the color scarlet. Vermilion is not on the color wheel since the color is mixed with a slight amount of grey. As with cadmium sulfide, mercuric sulfide can be found in a range from a bright orange-toned red to a duller slightly bluish red. The differences in hue are due to the range in the size of the ground particles. The larger the average crystal is, the duller and less orange-toned it appears. It has been theorized that the more coarsely ground "Chinese" form of vermilion is more permanent than the more orange "French" variety. It is also theorized that purification leads to increased stability, as with many other pigments.

Hindu women use vermilion along the hair parting line known as Sindoor, to signify that they are married. Hindu men often wear the vermilion on their forehead during religious ceremonies. Vermilion is part of all Hindu religious ceremonies and festivals.

In Hinduism, the tilaka or tilak (Sanskritतिलक tilaka)[1]

is a mark worn on the forehead and other parts of the body. Tilaka may be worn on a daily basis or for special religious occasions only, depending on different customs.

The tilak is a mark created by the smearing of powder or paste on the forehead. Occasionally it extends vertically and horizontally on a large part of the forehead and may cover the nose also. The most conspicuous and widespread are those worn by Vaishnavites or followers of Lord Vishnu and his incarnations, chiefly Lord Krishna. The tilak consists of a long line starting from just below the hairline till almost the end of one's nose tip. It is intercepted in the middle by an elongated U. There may be two marks on the temples as well. This tilak is traditionally done with sandalwood paste, lauded in Hindu texts for its purity and cooling nature.

The other major tilak variant is often worn by the followers of Lord Shiva and the different forms of Devi Shakti. It consists of three horizontal bands across the forehead with a single vertical band or circle in the middle. This is traditionally done with the ash or bhasma of the wood used in yagnyas to propitiate Lord Shiva or Devi Shakti. This variant is the more ancient of the two and shares many common aspect with similar markings worn across the world.

Nowadays, tilaks are rarely worn except by Hindu priests and Hindu women who wear the Bindi. It is often sported on religious occasions and on auspicious days such as birthdays, weddings etc.

Hindu women have been using Tilaka for many millennia. The tilaka are worn as a beauty mark by women of all faiths, with no adherence of Hindu belief. They generally use dots (bindi) rather than the lines and larger marks worn by men. The term "Bindi" seems to be more often used for beauty marks.

The bindi can vary from small to large. Sometimes the terms sindoorkumkum, or kasturi are used, by reference to the material used to make the mark.

Married Hindu women may also wear additional Tilaka between the parting of the hair above forehead. This mark serves to indicate marital status.

The sikha or shikha also be referred to as 'choti', 'kuduma' or 'chuda'. 

It should not be confused with the mullet hairstyle popularised in the 1980s.

is a Sanskrit word that refers to a long tuft, or lock of hair left on top or on the back of the shaven head of a male Orthodox Hindu. Though traditionally all Hindus were required to wear a sikha, today it is seen mainly amongBrahmacharya, 'celibate monks' and temple priests.

Traditionally, Hindu men shave off all their hair as a child in a saṃskāra or ritual known as the Mundan ceremony, orchudakaranachudakarma. A lock of hair is left at the crown (Brahmarandhra). Unlike most other eastern cultures (includingancient Egypt) where a coming-of-age ceremony removed childhood locks of hair similar to the sikha (e.g. a forelock or pigtailsin China, a topknot in Thailand, a sidelock in Egypt etc) in India this prepubescent hairstyle is left to grow throughout the man's life, though usually only the most orthodox religious men will continue this hairstyle.

The sikha is tied back or knotted to perform religious rites. Only funerals and death anniversaries are performed with the sikha tuft untied or with dishevelled hair. Dishevelled hair is considered inauspicious, and represents times of great sorrow or calamity. In Hindu scripture, Draupadi took an oath in the assembly of the Kurus after she was molested by Dussasana that she would remain with dishevelled hair until the enemies were properly revenged. Similarly, Chanakya is said to have taken an oath to leave his Shikha untied until he humbles the Nanda kings who insulted him.

The sikha reportedly signifies one-pointed (ekanta) focus on a spiritual goal, and devotion toGod. It is also said that the sikha allows God to easily pull one to paradise, although this belief is unsubstantiated and maybe a more islamic belief (see below). According to Smriti Shastras it is mandatory for all Hindus to keep sikha[1] and the first three twice-born or dvija castes to wear yajnopavita, also called janeu or paita (sacred thread).[2]

In his autobiography, Mohandas K. Gandhi writes about his encounter with an orthodox Hindu: "He was pained to miss the shikha (tuft of hair) on my head and the sacred thread about my neck and said: 'It pains me to see you, a believing Hindu, going without a sacred thread and the shikha. These are the two external symbols of Hinduism and every Hindu ought to wear them.' ... [T]he shikha was considered obligatory by elders. On the eve of my going to England, however, I got rid of the shikha, lest when I was bareheaded it should expose me to ridicule and make me look, as I then thought, a barbarian in the eyes of the Englishmen. In fact this cowardly feeling carried me so far that in South Africa I got my cousin Chhaganlal Gandhi, who was religiously wearing the shikha, to do away with it. I feared that it might come in the way of his public work and so, even at the risk of paining him, I made him get rid of it. "(WikiSource)

In western counties, the sikha hairstyle is often seen worn by adherents of the Hare Krishna movement.

Sir Thomas Herbert, 1st Baronet (1606 – 1682) described a similar hairstyle worn by Persians in his book 'Travels in Persia': "The Persians allow no part of their body hair except the upper lip, which they wear long and thick and turning downwards; as also a lock upon the crown of the head, by which they are made to believe their Prophet will at Resurrection lift them into paradise. Elsewhere their head is shaven or made incapable of hair by the oil dowae (daway) being thrice anointed. This had been made the mode of the Oriental people since the pomulgation of the alcoran (Al Quran), introduced and first imposed by the Arabians."

Another sikha-like hairstyle existed in eastern Europe. Sviatoslav I of Kiev reportedly wore a scalplock to signify his 'noble birth' (a similar reason as the sikha was worn by the Brahmin caste in India). The oseledets, or khokhol hairstyle of the Ukrainian Cossacks, or Zaporozhians, is near identical to the sikha. The scalplock of many Native American tribes (particularly of the eastern woodlands, such as the Huron) is very similar in appearance to the sikha as well, although of course, like the Cossack oseledets, a much different meaning was applied to this hairstyle.

Shastri (degree) 

is an educational title awarded by certain universities in India for students who have mastered the language of Sanskrit.

kerchief (from the French couvre-chef, "cover the head")

is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around thehead or around the neck for protective or decorative purposes. The popularity of head kerchiefs may vary by culture or religion, as among Amish women, Orthodox Jewish women, Muslim women, and older Slavic women.

A "handkerchief" or "hanky" primarily refers to a napkin made of cloth, used to dab away perspiration, clear thesinuses, or, in Victorian times, as a means of flirtation. A woman could intentionally drop a dainty square of lacy or embroidered fabric to give a favored man a chance to pick it up as an excuse to speak to her while returning it. Handkerchiefs were sometimes scented to be used like a nosegay or tussy-mussy, a way of protecting those who could afford them from the obnoxious scents in the street.

bandanna or bandana (from the Hindi: बन्धन bandhana, "to tie")

is a type of large, usually colorful, kerchief, usually worn on the head. Bandannas are frequently printed in a paisley pattern.

Bandannas are worn as a practical garment by:

  • Outdoor workers such as farmers and cowboys, who wear them around the neck to wipe the sweat off their faces and keep dust out of their collars.
  • Wildland firefighters, who wear them over the mouth and nose to lessen inhalation of dust and fumes.
  • Dancers and other athletes, who wear them during practice as a simple way of keeping hair and sweat out of their faces.
  • Some soldiers wear bandannas to keep their own sweat and blood out of their eyes.

Bandannas in particular colors are also worn as a means of communication or identification, as with the prominentCalifornia criminal gangs, the Bloods, the Crips, the Norteños, and the Sureños or in sexual subcultures in theUnited States. In the late 1980s/early 1990s, the Bloods and the Crips, wore red or blue paisley bandanas as a signifier of gang affiliation.

The word Dacoity

is the anglicized version of the Indian word dakaitee (डकैती or ڈکیتی or ডাকাতি) which comes from Dakoo (डाकू or ڈاکو, meaning "armed robber") or Dakat (ডাকাত).

  • Dacoity (Hindi: डकैती, Urdu: ڈکیتی, Bangla: ডাকাতি, dakaitee) means armed robbery.
  • Dacoit (Hindi: डकैत, Urdu: ڈکیت, Bangla: ডাকাত, dakait) means a bandit. According to OED ("A member of a class of robbers in India and Burmah, who plunder in armed bands.") dacoits existed in Burmah as well as India, and Rudyard Kipling's fictional Private Mulvaney was hunting Burmese "dacoits" in The Taking of Lungtungpen. The term was also applied, according to OED, to "pirates who formerly infested the Ganges between Calcutta and Burhampore".

The most infamous member of the Dacoit "profession" was probably India's Phoolan Devi.[citation needed] But the title of the most legendary dacoit is held byDaku Man Singh and Nirbhay Singh Gujjar who was killed recently.[citation needed] Between 1939 and 1955, Daku Man Singh had notched up 1,112 dacoities, 185 murders, countless ransom kidnappings.[citation needed] He was involved in 90 police encounters and had killed 32 policemen.[citation needed]

In recent times, Veerappan became one of the most famous [1] who was on the run for 20 years.

In Madhya Pradesh State, women belonging to a village defense group have been issued gun permits to fend off Dacoity. The Chief Minister of the district, Shivraj Singh Chouhan, recognized the role the women had played in defending their villages without guns. He stated that he wanted to enable these women to better defend both themselves and their villages, and issued the gun permits to advance this goal[2].

Koose Muniswamy Veerappan (January 181952October 182004)

was a most infamous and notorious banditof India. He resided and carried out his activities in the Biligirirangana Betta and Male Mahadeshwara Betta (Hills)and Sathyamangalam and Gundiyal forests, covering 6,000 km² in the states of KarnatakaKerala and Tamil Nadu. He challenged three state governments and the paramilitary force of Indian Border security. He once had a mini army with hundreds of armed members in his gang. He was wanted for killing about 184 people[1], including senior police and forest officials, poaching about 200 elephants, and smuggling ivory worth US$2,600,000 and sandalwoodof about 10,000 tonnes worth US$22,000,000. He had a price of Rs. 50 million (Rs. 5 crore or US$1.1 million) on his head, but evaded arrest for 20 years until he was killed by police in 2004[2].

Koose Muniswamy Veerappan alias Veerappan was born at 08:17 hrs (IST) on January 181952 in Gopinatham village in Karnataka to a family of cattle-grazers. He was commonly known as "Molakai" in his childhood days by the locals.

His gang of forty members indulged in killing and kidnapping, taking revenge for what the government officials have done to the Local people who lived near the forest. Most of his victims were police, forest officials, informers and movie stars. He felt the police were responsible for the suicides of his sister Mala and brother Arjunan. He was also known for his kidnapping of prominent people to make demands, starting with a forest official in 1987. He trapped and brutally killed a senior forest officer Mr. P. Srinivas IFS on November 101991 in Namadalli forests of Kollegal taluk in Chamarajanagr district. He also killed Mr. Harikrishna IPS, senior Police officer,SI Mr. Shakeel Ahmed, along with others on August 141992 near Meenyam of Kollegal taluk by ambushing the police party going for a raid.

He married Muthulakshmi, in 1991. He had three daughters, Yuvarani, Prabha and another, whom he allegedly strangled to death.

Robin Hood image

Veerappan had a Robin Hood-like image as a social bandit among the villagers adjoining his native village Gopinatham[3]. Sympathetic villagers are said to have acted as cover to his activities and informed him of police activities. They also provided food and clothing to the gang. However, it has been suggested that the villagers helped him out of fear of reprisal, and that Veerappan helped the villagers with money only to protect himself from being captured. He was very ruthless to villagers who provided the police with information.

He was arrested in 1986, but escaped. According to wildlife photographer Krupakar, who was once kidnapped by the bandit, he paid a bribe of (Rs. 100,000, about US$3,000) to a policeman to help him escape. Many have said that Veerappan's mimicry of birds and deer helped him evade capture. He regularly made his communications to the government through emissary R.R. Gopal, requesting amnesty.

[edit]Special task force

In 1990, the Karnataka government formed a Special Task Force to capture him and put an end to the menace. Soon after, the task force captured several of Veerappan's men. In February 1992, the special task force killed his lieutenant GurunathanSI Shakeel Ahmed, a dynamic police officer, was single-handedly responsible for Gurunathan's capture. Three months later, Veerappan attacked the Ramapura police station of Kollegal taluk in the Chamarajanagar district, killing several policemen and capturing arms and ammunition. In August 1992, Veerappan laid a trap for SP Harikrishna and SI Shakeel Ahmed and killed them along with four others. In 1993, the task force arrested his wife Muthulakshmi. In July 1993, he reportedly strangled his infant daughter, fearing the child's cry would get him caught.

On Feb 171996, he ambushed a team of Tamil Nadu STF personnel from a high ground while they were on their patrol vehicle. The police were able to counter attack and called for backup. The ambush which took place in the evening claimed the life of a Police Constable named Selvaraj from Madurai and seriously injured other police officers including Police officer Tamilselvan. By the time the Karnataka police arrived the bandit and his crew fled.

On July 121997, he kidnapped nine forest officials at a place called Marapala in Burude forests of Kollegala taluk of Chamarajanagara district. He made demands for releasing them, including amnesty, but none were met. The hostages were released without being harmed in the last week of August the same year.

On July 302000 Veerappan kidnapped popular Kannada film actor Dr. Rajkumar from his ancestral home. This event put the Karnataka government in a political dilemma of whether or not to call in the army. The decision was reached that to do so would set a poor precedent. Rajkumar was released without harm on November 152000, after 109 days in captivity. There are allegations by several people including Jayalalithaa that about 500,000,000 rupees were paid to Veerappan for releasing Rajkumar[4].

On August 252002 Veerappan abducted H. Nagappa, a former state minister. Nagappa was found dead in the forest three months later. The reward offered by the Karnataka state government was increased to 50,000,000 rupees (US $1.25 million).


Veerappan attended the Bannari Amman Kovil temple regularly and was known to be a strong devotee to Kali a Goddess in Hinduism. It is also said that he built a Kali temple. Veerappan belonged to the Vanniar caste. Some people of Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK), or Working People's Party, which is based on that Vanniar caste, hoisted half-mast flag of their party on the death of Veerappan.


On October 182004, following a tip-off, Veerappan and his two associates were allegedly killed after being arrested by Tamil Nadu State Special Task Force headed by the Additional Director-General of Police, K. Vijay Kumar,Superintendent of Police Sentamarai Kannan and Additional Superintendent of Police F.M.Hussain, near the village of Papparapatti in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu[5]. His third associate managed to escape. However, the next day his widow claimed that he had been arrested a few days earlier, interrogated and killed by the police (Veerappan had repeatedly threatened, if ever brought to trial, to point a finger at every policemen and politician he had bribed to ensure his three-decade long run from justice).

According to media reports, postmortem photos of Veerappan with a bullet hole above his left eye seemed to contradict with the official story that the STF, lying in ambush, stopped the ambulance Veerappan and his gang was traveling in, offered them to surrender and gunned them down when someone from inside the van opened fire. Another possibility, voiced by psychologist, Dr. P. Kodandaram, is that Veerappan and his associates may have committed collective suicide inside the van when faced with capture.

Veerappan was buried in the village of MoolakaduTamil Nadu. The police said they did not let the burial take place in his home village in Karnataka, fearing the large crowds that had gathered there. Although the police had planned for a cremation, this was objected to by the relatives of Veerappan suggesting that exhumation would be required if there was investigation into his death. Thousands of people turned out for the funeral while others were kept away from the burial ground by heavy security[6].

Timeline of Veerappan's activities:[7]

  • 1970
    • Joined a gang of poachers.
  • 1986
    • Arrested and lodged at Boodipada forest guest house but escaped under mysterious circumstances (reportedly bribed a police officer).
  • 1987
    • Kidnapped and hacked forest officer Chidambaram. Kidnapped and killed 5 members of a rival gang.
  • 1989
    • Killed 3 forest personnel of Begur forest range.
  • 1990
    • Killed 2 police personnel as revenge for killing of 2 members of his gang.
    • Killed another 13 police officials of Karnataka. The Karnataka government constitutes Special Task Force (STF) to catch Veerappan.
    • Shot and beheaded Karnataka deputy conservator of forests, Srinivas as revenge for Veerappan's sister Mala's suicide (the victim's head was traced 3 years later)
  • 1992
    • Attacked a police station in Ramapura, killing thirteen policemen and stealing arms and ammunition. STF killed 2 gang members in retaliation
    • Trapped STF police official Harikrishna, SI Shakeel Ahmed and 25 constables through a false informant. Killed 29 of the party using hand grenadesand bombs.
  • 1993
    • Blew up a bus of 43 passengers including police and civilians, using landmine.
    • Killed 17 policemen of Karnataka special SP Gopal Hosur's party.
    • Tamil Nadu government deploys Border Security Force (BSF)
    • Joint operations of BSF and STF arrested 9 gang members and killed 6. Three policemen were killed.
    • Veerappan requested amnesty. Victim's relatives opposed any government negotiations
  • 1996
    • Killed a police informer.
    • Killed another 19 police personnel.
    • Assassinated police official Tamilselvan and killed a constable as revenge for the suicide of Veerappan's brother Arjunan in police custody.
  • 1997
    • The gang kidnapped wildlife photographers Senani & Krupakar,they were released in October.)
    • Apparently killed heir apparent 'Baby' Veerappan.
    • Kidnapped and released another photographer Krupakar.
    • Kidnapped and executed 9 Karnataka Forest officials from Burude forests.
  • 2000
  • 2002
    • Kidnapped and allegedly killed former Karnataka minister H. Nagappa. There are other sources, including police of Karnataka who claim that the bullet in the body of the former minister was from a rifle used by the Tamil Nadu Special Task Force(Possibly the rifle used was stolen from Tamil nadu task force).
    • Killed, presumably by Tamil Nadu State Special Task Force members

The word henchman (Germanic irregular plural: henchmen)

referred originally to one who attended on a horse, that is, ahorse groom. Hence, like constable and marshal, also originally stable staff, henchman became the title of a (subordinate) official in a royal court or noble household. It is now used primarily to describe a stock character in many adventure stories: the villain's lackey or trusted aide.

The first part of the word, which is recorded in English since 1360, comes from the Old English hengest, meaning "horse", notably stallion, cognates of which also occur in many Teutonic languages, such as Old Frisian, German and Dutchhengst.

The word appears in the name of Hengest, the Saxon chieftain, and still survives in English in placenames and other names beginning with Hingst- or Hinx-. It was often rendered as Henxman in medieval English.

Young henchmen, in act pages of honour or squires, rode or walked at the side of their master in processions and the like, and appear in the English royal household from the 14th century until Tudor Queen Elizabeth I abolished the royal henchmen, known also as thechildren of honour.

The word became obsolete for grooms in English from the middle of the 17th century, but was retained in Scots as "personal attendant of a Highland chief".

It seems to have been revived in English through the novelist Sir Walter Scott, who took the word and its derivation, according to the New English Dictionary, from Edward Burt's Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland, together with its erroneous derivation from haunch. The word is, in this sense, synonymous with gillie, the faithful personal follower of a Highland chieftain, the man who stands at his master's haunch, ready for any emergency.

The modern sense of "obedient or unscrupulous follower" is first recorded 1839, probably based on a misunderstanding of the word as used by Scott, and is often used to describe an out-and-out adherent or partisan, ready to do anything.

Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ)

is a Dravidian language used predominantly in the state of Kerala, insouthern India. It is one of the 22 official languages of India, and it is used by around 36 million people.[1] Malayalam is also widely used in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Mahé, theKanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, and Dakshina Kannada, and Kodagu districts of Karnataka.[1][3][4][5]It is also used by a large population of Indian expatriates living in Arab States, the United Kingdom, theUnited States, and Canada.

Malayalam formed out of Proto-Dravidian rather late and began developing a body of literature by the 9th century CE.[6] Before Malayalam came into being, Proto-Dravidian was used in literature and courts of a region called Tamilakam. The modern Tamil language also developed from this Proto-Dravidian.

Malayalam uses a large proportion of Sanskrit vocabulary. Loans have also been made fromPortugueseArabicSyriac, and in more recent times English.

Govinda and Gopāla

are names of Krishna, referring to his youthful occupation as a cowherd.

Both names translate to "cowherd". Sanskrit go means "cow"; pāla and vinda form tatpurusha compounds, literally translating to "finder of cows" and "protector of cows", respectively.

The story of how Krishna was given the name Govinda is described in detail in the Vishnu Purana. After lifting Govardhan hill to protect the villagers and cows of Vrindavan, the lord of devas Indra awarded him the title.

Gopala Krsna of Krishnaism is often contrasted Vedism when Krishna asks his followers to desist from Vedic demigod, Indra worship. Thus the character of Gopala Krishna is often considered to be non-Vedic, while it can also be based on the popular understanding or rather misunderstanding -of the Rgvedic texts.[1]

A famous prayer called the Bhaja Govindam was composed by Adi Sankara, a summary of which is; "If one just worships Govinda, one can easily cross this great ocean of birth and death." This refers to the belief that worshipful adoration of Krishna can lead believers out of the cycle of reincarnation, orsamsara, and into an eternal blissful life in Vaikuntha, 'beyond this material world' where Govinda resides.

Govinda is a name of Krishna and also appears as the 187th and 539th names in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

According to Adi Sankara's commentary on the Vishnu Sahasranama, translated by Swami Tapasyananda, Govinda has three meanings:[citation needed]

  1. The sages call Krishna "Govinda" as He pervades all the worlds, giving them power.
  2. The Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata states that Vishnu restored the earth that had sunk into the netherword, or Patala, so all the devas praised Him as Govinda (Protector of the Land).
  3. Alternatively, it means "He who is known by Vedic words alone". Adi Sankara's Bhaja Govindam prayer expresses the value of inner devotion to Krishna.

In the HarivamsaIndra praised Krishna for having attained loving leadership of the cows which Krishna tended as a cowherd, by saying, "So men too shall praise Him as Govinda."

According to Klaus Klostermaier, Krishna Gopijanavallabha, Krishna the lover of the Gopis, is the latest stage in the historical process resulting in contemporary Krishnaism, being added to the worship of Bala Krishna (the Divine Child Krishna), and the original cult of Krishna-Vasudeva which may date back to several centuries before the Common Era.[2]

Bhelpuri (Hindi भेलपूरी, Marathi भेळ)

is a type of chaat or small plates of savory snacks, particularly identified with the beaches of Mumbai (Bombay), such as Chowpatty. Bhelpuri is available all across India, and may be known by different names - Bhelpuri in Mumbai, Churu Muri in BangaloreJhaal Muri inKolkataJhaal Muri (literally "hot puffed rice") is different in that it does not use any tamarind-based chutneyin the mix. Bhelpuri ingredients include diced boiled potatoes, chutney dalcoriander powder, gratedcoconut, and mustard oil. (Other types of cuisines available on the beaches of Mumbai include pani puri,cham chamKachooriragda, and pav bhaji.)

Bhelpuri was originally a Gujarati fast food. It later got merged with Mumbai culture and became synonymous with Mumbai. Bhelpuri is best consumed as soon as it is made. If left for a while, the juices from the tomatoes, chutneys, etc. combine to render the sev and mamra soggy.

There is much disagreement on what goes into the "original" bhel puri, even among chaat experts. Most recipes include puffed rice, sev, (a fried snack made from besan flour) and mixture ( a mix of different types of fried snacks mixed together), as the base of the snack. Other commonly used ingredients include tomatoesonions and chilis added to the base; northern recipes also add boiled and cut potatoes.

Different chutneys impart a sweet or spicy flavour. There are two popular chutneys used, a dark purple sweet one made mainly of dates and tamarind, and a green spicy chutney made of coriander leaves and green chilis.

Another variation is to sprinkle the chat with chunks of diced sweet mango. The finished snack is often garnished with a combination of diced onions, coriander leaves and chopped green chilis. It is sometimes served with papri puris, a deep fried small round and crispy wheat bread. The result is a sour/pungent/sweet tasting evening snack that is a treat for the tastebuds and a good source of carbohydrates and minerals.

There are many variants of Bhelpuri:

  • Sevpuri - a mixture of bhelpuri, chutneypapdi and sev
  • Dahi puri - a mixture of bhelpuri, chutney, papdi and savoured with lot of youghurt.
  • Sev papdi chaat - a lot like sevpuri but with 2-3 types of chutney, potatoes, chana masala

dargah (Persianدرگه)

is a Sufi shrine built over the grave of a revered religious figure, often a Sufi saint. LocalMuslims visit the shrine known as (ziyarat). Dargahs are often associated with Sufi meeting rooms and hostels, known askhanqah. They often include a mosque, meeting rooms, schools (Madrassas), residences for a teacher or caretaker, hospitals, and other buildings for community purposes.

The term is derived from a Persian word which can mean, among other uses, "portal" or "threshold". Many Muslims believe that dargahs are portals by which they can invoke the deceased saint's intercession and blessing (seeTawassul).

Shrines are found in many Muslim communities throughout the world, and called by many names (see Ziyarat). The termdargah is common in the Persian-influenced Islamic world, notably Iran and South Asia.

In South Africa, the term is used to describe shrines in the Durban area where there is a strong Indian presence, while the term keramat is more commonly used in Cape Town, where there is a strong Cape Malay culture.

In South Asia, dargahs are often the site of festivals (Milad) held in honor of the deceased saint at the date of his Urs, which is a day dedicated to the saint which usually falls on the saint's death anniversary. The shrine is illuminated with candles or strings of electric lights.

For a list of dargahs, see Ziyarat.

Arrack (n.

A name in the East Indies and the Indian islands for all ardent spirits. Arrack is often distilled from a fermented mixture of rice, molasses, and palm wine of the cocoanut tree or the date palm, etc.

Kishore Kumar (Hindiकिशोर कुमार) (August 41929 – October 131987)

was Indian film playback singer and actor. He also achieved notable success as a lyricist, composer, producer, director, screenwriter and scriptwriter.

Kishore Kumar was a prolific vocalist and sang in many Indian languages including HindiBengaliMarathi,AssameseGujaratiKannadaBhojpuriMalayalam and Oriya. Along with Mohammed Rafi , and Mukesh, he was one of the leading male Bollywood playback singers from the 1950s to the mid-1980s.

In October 1987, he died following a massive heart attack. He had been married four times and was survived by his two sons Amit Kumar, who made his career in playback singing in Bollywood and Bengali films, and Sumit Kumar.

Kabīr (also Kabīra) (Hindi: कबीर, Punjabi: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: کبير‎ (1398—1448)[1] was a mystic poet and saint of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti movement of India.[2]

Bhakti (Devanāgarīभक्ति)

is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion. Within Vaishnavism bhakti is only used in conjunction with VishnuKrishna or of the associated incarnations,[1] who are the source of attractiveness. Krishna is currently an important and popular focus of the devotional and ecstaticaspects of Hindu religion, particularly among the Vaishnava sects.[2] However, it is likewise sometimes used as a term toward Shiva by some traditions ofShaivism and Shakti by some traditions of Shaktism.

Bhakti as a process of yoga (Bhakti yoga) is described in detail famously within the Bhagavad Gita, wherein it is given as the ultimate form of religious expression[3], for which all other dharmas should be abandoned[4] and also in other texts such as the Narada Bhakti Sutra.

Ektara (BengaliএকতারাPunjabiਇਕ ਤਾਰ; also called iktarektar or gopichand)

is a one string instrument used in PakistanIndia and Bangladesh. It literally means single-stringed (ek - one, tara - string).

In origin the ektara was a regular string instrument of wandering bards and minstrels from India and is plucked with one finger. The ektara usually has a stretched single string, an animal skin over a head (made of dried pumpkin/gourd, wood or coconut) and pole neck or split bamboo cane neck. Pressing the two halves of the neck together changes the pitch, creating an unusual sound. The strings of the ektara give a range of tones by applying pressure at various points along the neck. This is a musical instrument that does not have markings for notes, and is played by assumption. The various sizes are a soprano ektara, tenor ektara, or bass ektara. The bass ektara, sometimes called a dotara often has two strings.

These instruments are commonly used in Kirtan chanting, which is a Hindu devotional practice of singing the divine names and mantras in an ecstatic call and response format. Used by Sadhus, or wandering holy men. Also, the ektara is used for Sufi chanting as well as by the Bauls of Bengal.

Nowadays the ektara is widely used by folk singers. Traditional and modern forms of bhangra sometimes use an ektara to accompany the singer and dhol.

The ektara has been made popular in the United States by devotional Kirtan wallahs, such as the legendary Westernsadhu Bhagavan Das, author of Its Here Now, Are You? and of Be Here Now and 1970s fame and kirtan recording artist.

Ektara is the most ancient form of string instrument found in the Eastern parts of India, whose family stays scattered all over the country, the Bin being one of its Up-country close cousins. Though it has a humble tribal beginning, but has been, through the ages, associated and popularized by the ascetic and minstrel tradition of songs in Bengal, and all throughout. This again, like the Bangla dotara, has its roots in the "Rahr Bangla" comprising of the districts of Birbhhum, Bankura and Nadia.

A typical Bengali Ektara is constructed out of a half of a dried gourd shell serving as the sound-box, with a metal string running right through the middle of the shell; at the top, the string is tied to a knob, which adjusts the tension the of the string and thereby, the tuning—the knob and the string-tension is supported by two bamboo-strips, tied to two opposite sides of the gourd shell.

The playing style of this instrument is a simultaneous pluck and gong, matching the rhythm of the music. The Ektara and the Ghati Baya, together form a complete set accompaniments, especially to Devotional and Deolati musical traditions. The string, as in a Dotara, is tuned to the main/root note of the composition.

Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. It is an ambiguous term that lies somewhere between hillwalking androck climbing[1] It is often distinguished from hillwalking by defining a scramble as a route where hands must be used in the ascent. There is less to distinguish it from climbing, with many easy climbs sometimes referred to as difficult scrambles. A distinction can be made in defining any ascent where hands are used to hold body weight, rather than just for balance, as a climb.

The Mountaineers climbing organization defines scrambling as follows:

"Alpine Scrambles are off-trail trips, often on snow or rock, with a 'non-technical' summit as a destination. A non-technical summit is one that is reached without the need for certain types of climbing equipment (body harness, rope, protection hardware, etc), and not involving travel on extremely steep slopes or on glaciers. However, this can mean negotiating lower angle rock, traveling through talus and scree, crossing streams, fighting one's way through dense brush, and walking on snow-covered slopes." [2]


is a lemon and lime flavoured carbonated soft drink made in India and certain parts of the U.S. It is less bubbly than its American counterparts like Seven Up and Sprite, and it has a slight flavor of ginger.

In 1992, when the government allowed Coca-Cola to return, at the same time as it admitted Pepsi for the first time, Coca-Cola bought Limca, Thums UpMaaza and other drink brands.

Like other sodas, Limca is generally sold in glass bottles within India, which are returned to the store or restaurant after the contents have been drunk. The bottles are sent back to the manufacturer, washed and reused, because they are more expensive than the drink itself.

Limca also publishes the Limca Book of Records, a record book similar to the Guinness Book of Records. TheLimca Book of Records details feats, records and other unique statistics from an Indian perspective.

One of Limca's original and very popular taglines was "Limca. It's veri veri Lime & Lemoni." In India reigning top Hindi film actress and actors are generally chosen as models for the product.

Thums Up

is a carbonated soft drink (cola) popular[citation needed] in India, where its bold, red thumbs uplogo is common. It is similar in flavour to other colas but has a unique taste reminiscent of betel nut. Introduced in 1977 to offset the expulsion of The Coca-Cola Company and other foreign companies from India, Thums Up, Limca, and Campa Cola gained nationwide acceptance. The brand was bought out by Coca-Cola which, after unsuccessful attempts at killing the brand, later re-launched it in order to compete against Pepsi.


During the late 1970s, the American cola giant Coca-Cola abandoned operations in India rather than make a forced sale of 60% of their equity to an Indian company. [1] Following this, the Parle brothers, Ramesh Chauhan and Prakash Chauhan, along with then CEO Bhanu Vakil, launched Thums Up as their flagship drink, adding to their portfolio of older brands Limca (lime flavour) and Gold Spot (orange flavour). Thums Up was basically a cola drink, but the company never claimed it as such. The formula was just as closely guarded as the famous Coke formula. During the same time, the owners of Coca-Cola’s bottling plant, Pure Drinks Ltd., launched Campa Cola and Campa Orange, both of which had a higher dose of carbon dioxide.

Manmad Hill
Typical bottle of Thums Up

The Thums Up logo was a red 'thumbs up' hand gesture with a slanted white san-serif typeface. This would later be modified by Coca-Cola with blue strokes and a more modern-looking typeface. This was mainly done to reduce the dominant red color in their signage. The picture shows the Thums Up mountain or, Thums Up pahaad (in Hindi), Manmad hills which has a natural top like the thums up logo and is a popular sight from trains. Its famous caption until the early 1980s was, “Happy days are here again”, coined by then famous copywriter Vasant Kumar, whose father was spiritual philosopher U. G. Krishnamurti. Later it was changed to "Taste the thunder!".


Thums Up enjoyed a near monopoly with a much stronger market share often overshadowing its other rivals like Campa cola, Double seven and Dukes, but there were many small regional players who had their own market. It even withstoodliquor giant United Breweries Group (makers of Kingfisher Beer) Mcdowell's Crush, which was another Cola drink, and Double Cola.

It was one of the major advertisers throughout the 1980s. In the mid-80’s it had a brief threat from a newcomer Double Colawhich suddenly disappeared within a few years.

In 1990, when the Indian government opened the market to multinationals, Pepsi was the first to come in. Thums Up went up against the international giant for an intense onslaught with neither side giving any quarter. With Pepsi roping in major Indian movie stars like Juhi Chawla, to thwart the Indian brand, Thums Up increased its spending on Cricket sponsorship. Then the capacity went from 250ml to 300ml, aptly named MahaCola. This nickname gained popularity in smaller towns where people would ask for "Maha Cola" instead of Thums Up. The consumers were divided where some felt Pepsi’s mild taste was rather bland.

In 1993 Coca-Cola re-entered India after a prolonged absence from 1977 to 1993. But Coca-Cola’s entry made things even more complicated and the fight became a three-way battle. That same year, in a move that baffled many, Parle sold out to Coke for a meagre US$ 60 million (considering the market share it had). Some assumed Parle had lost the appetite for a fight against the two largest cola brands; others surmised that the international brands seemingly endless cash reserves psyched-out Parle. Either way, it was now Coca-Cola’s, and Coke has a habit of killing brands in its portfolio that might overshadow it. Coca-Cola soon introduced its cola in cans which was all the rage in India, with Thums Up introduced alongside, albeit in minuscule numbers. Later Coca-Cola started pulling out the Thums Up brand which at that time still had more than 30% market share.


Despite its strong overall equity, the brand was losing its popularity among the core cola drinking age group of 12 to 25 year olds, partly due to nil advertising.

Coca-Cola apparently did try to kill Thums Up, but soon realized that Pepsi would benefit more than Coke if Thums Up was withdrawn from the market. Instead, Coke decided to use Thums Up to attack Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company by this time had about 60.5% share of the Indian soft-drink market [1]but much to its dismay found out that if it took out Thums Up, it would remain with only 28.72% of the market (according to a report by NGO Finance&Trade in India), hence it once again dusted out the Thums Up brand and re-launched it targeting the 30 to 45 year olds.

The brand was re-positioned as a “manly” drink, drawing on its strong taste qualities. Known to be a strong drink with more power packed into it than other colas, it was a favorite in Rum based Cocktails, as in “rum and Thums Up.” Thums Up kick-started an aggressive campaign directly attacking Pepsi’s TV ads, focusing on the strength of the drink hoping that the depiction of an “adult” drink would appeal to young consumers. “Grow up to Thums Up” was a successful campaign. The brand’s market share and equity soared. The brand was unshakeable and Coca-Cola’s declaration that Thums Up was India’s premier cola brand in terms of market share did not surprise many.

Other campaigns from Thums Up build on its “strength” and its perception as a macho drink. Ads showing the Thums Up man, riding through the desert in search of a cantina that sells Thums Up rather than drink another cola, stuck in the minds of many Indians and caught the imagination of youngsters who want to be seen as men.


Thums Up was a major sponsor of cricket matches. In the early 1980s, it came out with several postcards featuring Sunil Gavaskar and Imran Khan. Besides cricketers, Thums Up's celebrity endorsers include Akshay Kumar and popular south Indian actor Mahesh Babu. Besides this, Parle’s southern bottler was a major sponsor of Indian motorsport in the 80s. In addition to sponsoring several Indian track drivers in Sholavaram races, they sponsored several regional car and bike rallies.

Campa Cola

is a soft drink brand in India. It was a market leader in most regions of India for a period spanning several years until the advent of the foreign players Pepsi and Coca-Cola after the liberalisation policy of the P. V. Narasimha Rao Government in 1991.

Campa Cola was a drink created by the Pure Drinks Group in the 1970s. The Pure Drinks Group pioneereed the India soft drink industry when it introduced Coca-Cola into India in 1949, and were the sole manufacturers and distributors of Coca-Cola till the 1970's when Coke was asked to leave. The Pure Drinks Group and Campa Beverages Pvt. Ltd. virtually monopolized the entire Indian soft drink industry for about 20 years, and then started Campa Cola during the absence of foreign competition.

History of Pure DrinksGroup

The group was founded by Padam Shiri Sardar Mohan Singh. Upon his death, it was passed on to his two sons; Sardar Daljit Singh and Sardar Charanjit Singh. When Sardar Charanjit Singh died, he left no heirs, and so the company was handed down to the sons of Sardar Daljit Singh.

The Pure Drinks Group is amongst the oldest and premier industrial houses in India. It has diversified its business interests from soft drinks, and is involved in construction, hotels, consultancy services, telecommunication, and is amongst the largest real estate owners in India.

The drongos

are a family of small passerine birds of the Old World tropics. They are found in the family Dicruridae, which is sometimes much enlarged to include a number of largely Australasian groups, such as the Australasian fantailsmonarchs and paradise flycatchers. The name is originally from the indigenous language of Madagascar, where it refers to local species, but is now used to refer to all members of the family.[1]

The family Dicruridae are believed to be most likely of Indo Malayan origin with a colonization of Africa about 15 million years ago. Dispersal across the Wallace Line into Australasia is estimated to have been more recent, around 6 mya.[2]

These insectivorous birds are found in usually open forests or bush. Most are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and someAsian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. Racket-tailed Drongos are the mimicry artists among birds. They can mimic the sound of other birds and some animals. They flycatch or take prey from the ground.

Two to four eggs are laid in a nest high in a tree. These are aggressive and fearless birds, given their small size, and drongos will attack much larger species if their nest or young are threatened.

Sahib (Urduصاحب ) (traditionally pronounced /ˈsɑːɪb/ or /ˈsɑːb/ in English, now often /səˈhiːb/)

 is an eastern term of respect, meaning Sir, master or lord, used in several languages including Hindi-Urdu (Hindustani), Bengali and Marathi. It has also been translated as: grace or, as in the Sikh religion, "Guru's honor." It comes from the Arabic ṣāḥib صاحب, originally "friend, companion" (from ṣaḥiba صحب "he accompanied"). Its feminine form is ṣāḥibah صاحبة

"Sahib" means "friend" or "master" in Arabic and was commonly used in the Sub-continent as a courteous term in the way that "Mr." (also derived from the word "master") and "Mrs." derived from the word "mistress") is used in the English language. It is still used today in the Sub-continent just as "Mr." and "Mrs.", and continues to be used today by English language speakers as a polite form of address.

The term "Sahib" was applied indiscriminately to any person whether Indian or Non-Indian. This included Europeans who arrived in the Sub-continent as traders in the 16th Century and hence the first mention of the word in European records is in 1673.

"Sahiba" is the authentic form address to be used for a female. Under the British raj however, the word used for female members of the establishment was adapted to memsahib a corruption of the English word "ma'am" which was added to the word "sahib").

The same word is also appended to the names of Sikh gurus.

Chorizo (pronounced [tʃo̞ˈɾiso̞] in American Spanish or pronounced [tʃo̞ˈɾiθo̞] in Castilian Spanish), Chourizo (pronounced [tʃoˈɾiθo̞]) in Galician, Chouriço (pronounced [ʃoˈɾisu] in Portuguese) or Xoriço (pronounced [ʃuˈɾisu] in Catalan

is a term encompassing several types of porksausage originating from the Iberian Peninsula. Sometimes it is mispronounced as "choritso".

Chorizo can be a fresh sausage, in which case it must be cooked, but in Europe it is more frequently a fermented cured smoked sausage, in which case it is usually sliced and eaten without cooking. Spanish chorizo and Portuguese chouriço get their distinctive smokiness and deep red color from dried smoked red peppers (pimentón/pimentão or colorau).

Chorizo can be eaten as is (sliced or in a sandwich), simmered in apple cider or other strong alcoholic beverage such as Aguardientebarbecued orfried. Like breakfast sausage, it is used as an ingredient of other dishes. It also can be used as a partial replacement for ground beef or pork.[1]

Spanish chorizo is made from coarsely chopped pork and pork fat, seasoned with smoked pimentón (paprika) and salt. It is generally classed as eitherpicante (spicy) or dulce (sweet), depending upon the type of smoked paprika used. There are hundreds of regional varieties of Spanish chorizo, both smoked and unsmoked, which may contain garlic, herbs and other ingredients.[2] [3] Chorizo comes in short, long, hard and soft varieties, some of which are suited to being eaten as an appetizer or tapas, whereas others are better suited to cooking. Leaner varieties are typically better suited to tapas, eaten at room temperature, whereas fattier versions are generally used for cooking.[4] A general rule of thumb is that long, thin chorizos are sweeter and short chorizos are spicy, although this is not always the case. [5]

Roquefort (AmE [ˈɹɔʊkfɚt]BrE [ɹɒkˈfɔː]French [ʀɔkfɔʀ]; from Occitan ròcafòrt [ˌrrɔkɔˈfɔɾt])

is a sheep milk bluecheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'AuvergneStilton and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best-known blue cheeses. Though similar cheeses are produced elsewhere, European law dictates that only those cheeses aged in the natural Combalou caves of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon may bear the name Roquefort, as it is a recognised geographical indication, or has a protected designation of origin.

The cheese is white, crumbly and slightly moist, with distinctive veins of green mould. It has characteristic odor and flavor with a notable taste of butyric acid; the green veins provide a sharp tang. The overall flavor sensation begins slightly mild, then waxes sweet, then smoky, and fades to a salty finish. It has no rind; the exterior is edible and slightly salty. A typical wheel of Roquefort weighs between 2.5 and 3 kilograms, and is about 10 cm thick. As each kilogram of finished cheese requires about 4.5 litres of milk, Roquefort is high in protein and minerals, notably calcium and sodium (salt).

The Gherkin (French cornichon)

is a small cucumber type vegetable, usually of the same species as the cucumber(Cucumis sativus), but of a different race. They are usually picked when 3 to 8 cm (1 to 3 in) in length and pickled in jars or cans with vinegar (often flavoured with herbs, particularly dill; hence, ‘dill pickle’) or brine to become a pickled cucumber.

The term can also be used to refer to the West Indian Burr Gherkin (Cucumis anguria), a related plant species, originallyWest African, that was introduced to the West Indies, probably by the Portuguese. This ‘true’ or Burr Gherkin or badunga cannot interbreed with the ‘true’ cucumber (Cucumis sativus), which is the condiment vegetable now generally known as the gherkin or dill pickle. The West Indian Burr Gherkin is edible and may be pickled but must be picked when no longer than 4 cm (1.5 in) long, since it becomes bitter and spiny if allowed to grow larger.

The ultimate origin of the word is unknown, but it comes to English by way of early modern Dutch gurkkijn, agurkkijn (now gurkje, augurkje), dim. of agurk, augurk (also shortened gurk), cucumber.[1] (The word ‘pickle’ itself is derived from the Dutch pekel, a salt or acid preserving fluid.) The similarly pronouncedSwedish word, “gurka”, means cucumber, cognate with German “Gurke”.

The fruit itself may have originated in India. The ‘pickled gherkin’ was known, although not by that name, to the ancient Mesopotamians no later than the 3rd century BC and enjoyed in ancient EgyptGreece, and Rome. The gherkin is mentioned in English in the seventeenth century, although the English diaristSamuel Pepys describes the ‘girkin’ in his entry for 1661-12-01 as ‘a rare thing’. Knowledge of the condiment may have been disseminated throughout Europe from the Middle East in the course of the Jewish Diaspora.[citation needed]

The gherkin may have been introduced to the American public by one Minton Collins of Richmond, Virginia, who was offering it for sale in the Virginia Gazette in 1792, although it might have been known in Colonial times under another name. It was a favorite of Thomas JeffersonPickling of gherkins was at first a domestic activity, but the jar of pickles became a commercial product in France as early as the 1820s. The condiment rapidly became generally popular, although always more so in the USA than among the British, for whom the generic ‘pickle’ remained the small, sweet onion.[citation needed]

The term is sometimes also used by artists to refer to a tool used in drawings using graphite, charcoal and similar mediums. The tool is a tightly wrapped paper strip used to smooth out swatches on the drawing by spreading the medium out with a rubbing action. It is loosely the shape of a gherkin, presumably where the name derives.[citation needed]

Brine (lat. saltus)

is water saturated or nearly saturated with a salt (usually Sodium chloride).

It is used to preserve vegetablesfish, and meat, in a process known as brining (now less popular than historically). Brine is also commonly used to age Halloumi and Feta cheeses.

Brine is a common fluid used in the transport of heat from place to place. It is used because the addition of salt to water lowers the freezing temperature of the solution and the heat transport efficiency can be greatly enhanced for the comparatively low cost of the material. At a concentration of 23.3%, the freezing point of NaCl brine is lowered to −21°C (252.15 K, −6°F)[citation needed], and that of CaCl2 brine down to -40°C (233.15 K, -40°F)[1]:69

At 15.5°C (288.65 K, 60°F) saturated Sodium chloride brine is 26.4% salt by weight (100 degree SAL). At 0°C (273.15 K, 32°F) brine can only hold 26.3% salt.

0°F was set as the zero point in the Fahrenheit temperature scale, as it was the coldest temperature that Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit could reliably reproduce — by freezing brine.[2]


is an Australian island and state of the same name. It is located 240 kilometres (150 mi) south of the eastern side of the continent, being separated from it by Bass Strait. The state of Tasmania includes the island of Tasmania and other surrounding islands. The state has an estimated population of 500,000 (as of December 2008) with almost half located in the greater Hobart area, and an area of 68,401 square kilometres (26,410 sq mi), of which the main island covers 62,409 square kilometres (24,096 sq mi).[4]

Tasmania is promoted as the Natural State and the "Island of Inspiration"[5] owing to its large and relatively unspoiled natural environment. Formally, almost 37% of Tasmania is in reserves, National Parks and World Heritage Sites.[6] The island is 364 kilometres (226 mi) long from the northernmost point to the southernmost point and 306 kilometres (190 mi) from west to east.

The state capital and largest city is Hobart, which encompasses the local government areas of City of HobartCity of GlenorchyCity of Clarence and generally included is the satellite town of Kingston, part of theMunicipality of Kingborough, into the Greater Hobart area. Other major population centres includeLaunceston in the north and Devonport and Burnie in the northwest. The subantarctic Macquarie Island is also under the administration of the state, as part of the Huon Valley Council local government area.


refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. It is more usually known as silverwareor flatware in the United States, where cutlery can have the more specific meaning of knives and other cutting instruments. This is probably the original meaning of the word. Since silverware suggests the presence of silver, the term tableware has come into use.

The major items of cutlery in the Western world are the knifefork and spoon. In recent times, utensils have been made combining the functionality of pairs of cutlery are the spork (spoon / fork), spife (spoon / knife), and knork (knife / fork) or the Splayd which is all three.

Traditionally, good quality cutlery was made from silver (hence the U.S. name), though steel was always used for more utilitarian knives, and pewter was used for some cheaper items, especially spoons. From the nineteenth century, Electroplated Nickel Silver (EPNS) was used as a cheaper substitute; nowadays, most cutlery, including quality designs, is made from stainless steel. Another alternative is melchior, a nickel and copper alloy, which can also sometimes contain manganese.

Plastic cutlery is made for disposable use, and is frequently used outdoors (campingexcursions, and BBQs for instance), at fast-food or take-awayoutlets, or provided with airline meals.

The word cutler derives from the Middle English word 'cuteler' and this in turn derives from from Old French 'coutelier' which comes from 'coutel'; meaning knife.[1]


is a British slang term referring to a fellow, a man, commonly used in Britain, Australia and New Zealand. It was first recorded in England in the 1820s and appeared in a glossary by the late 1830s, spelled "bloak" and defined as "a gentleman." During the second half of the 1800s, it had fairly common usage in American English, from underworld slang to more general use but has been little heard there since the 1930s.

The term appears in the title of Australian silent film The Sentimental Bloke (1919), based on the 1915 Australian book The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke by C.J. Dennis.

Its origin is unknown but It is sometimes attributed to the Shelta language spoken by the travelling people in Ireland.

Kabari walla

From a girl  Name Shveita sethi  www.happinessinabottle-shvets.blogspot.com and can be contacted at shveitta_sethi@yahoo.com

I was visiting my home country( India) and having arrived at the godly hour of 4 am was just about drifting into slumber land when suddenly I hear the shrill ear piercing shout, � kabari walla- kabari walla, raddi paper, plastic, bottle �..kabari walla� ( Kabari wala�s are scrap dealers who buy your junk and sell it for a small profit to a buyer who recycle�s those and sells them for a bigger profit) . I suddenly sit upright , not knowing if I was dreaming or awake . It was the shrillest loudest voice I had ever heard. At a decibel level of over 100 he would put any soprano to shame.

I woke up cursing and tried to stuff my ears with cotton buds so as to muffle the sound and try and go back to sleep. All the squirming and stuffing would not take the sound out of my head and by now I was fully awake. I cursed the kabari walla and eventually shouted him away� I guess he moved away to more cluttered pastures !!!

But as soon as he moved away, I realized that I may need him after all. I ran down to chase after him and somehow managed to catch him as he was cycling away. He came right back with a big grin and his weighing scale. I asked my house hold help to bring out all the unwanted paper, plastic, bottles, tupperware and anything else that had lived beyond its use by dates. As the stuff kept appearing and the pile of clutter kept getting higher, the Kabari walla�s grin kept getting wider. He couldn�t contain his excitement and the look in his eyes said it all. � My God , you had so much stuff you wanted to get rid off and you shooed me away! You must be crazy�. 

He started sorting out the good, bad and the ugly and offered me a price. I bargained and got a bit more. Both, the kabari walla and I felt we had made a bargain. Both of us had big smiles on our faces. 

What a service the kabari Walla provides. He comes right to your door step and takes away your unwanted items and actually pays you for it. In HKG I have to pay someone to take away my old stuff.

Contented with my days earning, I thought how wonderful it would be if a kabari walla could come by every week to help me de clutter my emotional life as well.

Jhoparpatti walla

The Hindi translation for slum dwellers is "Jhoparpatti walla". Since there are a ton of stray dogs in India, some rich people refer to poor people as dogs as an insult.

Kookaburras (genus Dacelo) (or Cookaburras)

are large to very large (total length 28-42 cm/11-17 in) terrestrial kingfishers native to Australia and New Guinea, the name a loanword from Wiradjuriguuguubarra, which is onomatopoeic of its call. The single member of the genus Clytoceyx, while commonly referred to as the Shovel-billed Kookaburra, is not treated in this article. Kookaburras were found by English men in the middle of the eighteenth century.

Kookaburras are best known for their unmistakable call, which is uncannily like loud, echoing human laughter — good-natured, if rather hysterical, merriment in the case of the well-knownLaughing Kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae); and maniacal cackling in the case of the slightly smaller Blue-winged Kookaburra (D. leachii). They are generally not closely associated with water, and can be found in habitats ranging from humid forest to arid savanna, but also in suburban and residential areas near running water and where food can be searched for easily.

Kookaburras are carnivorous. They will eat lizards, snakes, insects, mice and raw meat. The most social birds will accept handouts from humans and will take raw or cooked meat (even if at high temperature) from on or near open-air barbecues left unattended. It is generally not advised to feed the birds too regularly as meat alone does not include calcium and other nutrients essential to the bird. Remainders of mince on the bird's beak can fester and cause problems for the bird.

They are territorial, and often live with the partly grown chicks of the previous season. They often sing as a chorus to mark their territory.

In the wild, kookaburras are known to eat babies of other birds and snakes, and insects and small reptiles and even other small birds, such as finches if they are lucky enough to catch them. In zoos, they are usually fed food for birds of prey, and dead baby chicks.

A male Blue-winged Kookaburra. All kookaburras aresexually dimorphic, but this is only obvious in the Blue-winged and the Rufous-bellied, where males have blue tails, females rufous.

adj. reddish, ruddy, having a reddish coloring 

Lair up
1. dress up in flashy clothes; 2. renovate or dress up something in bad taste 


is an alcoholic (alcohol 20.5%, 21%, 25% and even 28% depending on which country it is purchased) aperitif obtained from the infusion of bitter herbs, aromatic plants and fruit in alcohol and water.. Campari is a type of bitters.

Campari was invented by Gaspare Campari between 1862 and 1867. Today the product is still composed of the same original ingredients, thanks to a formula which has remained a secret for almost 150 years.

The history of Campari began in NovaraItaly, in 1860, with the invention by Gaspare Campari of the recipe that is still in use today. The recipe is kept confidential; according to Gruppo Campari, there is only one person in the world who knows the entire formula for the original family recipe.[1] It is known that the colour came from natural Carmine Cochineal E120, but the Gruppo Campari in many countries has shifted to an alternative colorant.

In 1904, Campari's first production plant was opened in Sesto San Giovanni, near Milano (Italy). The company required bars that bought Campari to display the Campari Bitters sign; under the direction of Davide Campari, Gaspare's son, the company began to export the brand, first to Nice, the heart of the French Riviera, then overseas. The Campari brand is now distributed in over 190 countries.

In the Italian market, Campari mixed with carbonated water is sold in individual bottles as Campari Soda (10% alcohol by volume). Campari Soda is packaged in a distinctive bottle that was designed by Fortunato Depero; it was first created in 1932. Campari is said to have been one of the inspirations behind another bitter sweet drink called Kinnie produced in Malta since 1952.

Campari is an essential ingredient in the classic Negroni cocktail, and also in the Americano, named at a time when few Americans were aware of Campari. Campari can be used to make a sorbet.

a shortened form of the exclamation "God's truth!"; exclamation, mild oath: "Strewth, that Chris is a bonzer bloke"

  noun Austral./NZ informal a scrounger or idler: a dole bludger.

C19 (orig. Brit. sl. denoting a pimp who robbed his prostitute's clients): abbrev. of bludgeoner

Farangi or firang

is a term for foreigners in Persian, possibly linked to the Franks. The word in Arabic (faranji or ferenji) is similar and the word Farangi also appears in AmharicUrdu and Hindi in reference to foreigners. It can have a derogatory connotation, and was used by people in British India to refer to the "white foreigners who travel".

Lodhi (or LodiPashto / Urduلودھی )

is a Pashtun tribe of 2 million people, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai tribe of Afghanistanand Pakistan. They were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan. Often accompanying the Timurids who conquered South Asia, the Lodhi established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors. Legend has it that the tribe derives from a descendent of Qais Abdur Rashid, who married a Turkish prince.

Members of this tribe established the Lodhi dynasty, which ruled over the Delhi Sultanate and included the prominent ruler Ibrahim Lodhi. The "Lodhi" family name is often linked with the title "Khan" in the form "Khan Lodhi" or "Khan-Lodhi". Sometimes only the "Khan" or "Lodhi" is retained. "Khan" is a title denoting nobility, and does not necessarily mean its bearer is a Lodhi or of Lodhi extraction.

Today, Lodhi are mainly found in Afghanistan, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and the Punjab region of Pakistan . They usually practice Islam, the majority being Sunni.

Lodhi Gardens (Hindi: लोधी बाग़, Urdu: لودھی باغ)

is a park in DelhiIndia. Spread over 90 acres[1], it contains architectural works of the 15th century Sayyid and Lodhis, a Pathan dynasty which ruled much of Northern India during the 16th century, and the site is now protected byArcheological Survey of India (ASI) [1]. The gardens are situated between Khan Market andSafdarjung's Tomb on Lodhi Road.

odhi Gardens was originally two historic villages surrounding monuments surviving from the 15th century Sayyid and Lodhi dynasties, but the villagers were relocated in 1936 in order to create the gardens. As there is little architecture from these two periods remaining in India, Lodhi Gardens is an important place of preservation. The tomb of Mohammed Shah is visible from the road, and is the earliest structure in the gardens. The architecture is characterised by the octagonal chamber, with stone chhajjas on the roof and guldastas on the corners.

Another tomb within the gardens is that of Sikander Lodi, which is similar, though without the chhattris.

During British Raj, it was landscaped by Lady Willingdon, wife of Governor-General of India,Marquess of Willingdon, and hence named the 'Lady Willingdon Park' upon its inauguration on April 9, 1936[2][3] , and 1947 it was given its present name, Lodhi Gardens. Later, it was re-landscaped in 1968 by J A Stein along with Garrett Eckbo [4], during the time Stein also made a glass house within the park [2].

In the middle of the gardens is the Bara Gumbad and Sheesh Gumbad. The Bara Gumbad ("Big Dome") consists of a large rubble-construct dome, a three domed masjid (mosque) and a residence surrounding a central courtyard, where the remains of a water tank can be seen. Opposite the Bara Gumbad is the Sheesh Gumbad("glass dome"), which contains the remains of an unknown family.

Further into the gardens you can travel across what used to be a watercourse connected to the Yamuna Riverto Sikander Lodhi's tomb. This tomb still has the battlements enclosing it. Nearby to Sikander's tomb is the Athpula ("Eight Piered") Bridge, which was built during Akbar's reign.

INTACH and Archeological Survey of India (ASI) now organize heritage walks for students and general public within the park area [5], which has become a favorite with morning walkers and yoga enthusiasts. INTACH has made available a small booklet, offering information about park's history, and the monuments, birds and trees within the complex [6].

Tihar Prisons, also called Tihar Jail and Tihar Ashram,

is the largest complex of prisons inSouth Asia. It is located at Tihar village, approximately 8 km from Chanakya Puri, to the west of New DelhiIndia. The surrounding area is called Ashok Nagar.

The prison is maintained as a Correctional Institution. Its main objective is to convert its inmates into normal members of the society by providing them with useful skills, education and rules. It is meant to improve the inmates' self-esteem and strengthen their desire to improve. Items manufactured by the inmates bear the brand Tihar.[1]

The original Tihar Jail was built in 1958 on the site of Tihar village. Originally it was a maximum security prison run by the State of Punjab. In 1966 control was transferred to the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Beginning in 1984 additional facilities were constructed, and it became the Tihar Prisons. Earlier Tihar (Jail) was (ex) Tevatia Jaats property.

While Kiran Bedi was the Inspector General of Prisons, and had the Tihar Prisons under her jurisdiction, she instituted a number of prison reforms, including changing the name to Tihar Ashram. She also instituted a Vipassana meditation program for both staff and inmates.The Prison has yielded an Inmate who has passed I.A.S .[2]

[edit]Famous inmates

Charles Sobraj, an international criminal, escaped from this prison on March 161986, but was recaptured shortly thereafter and returned to Tihar Prison with an additional ten year term of imprisonment for the escape. He was released on completion of his term on February 171997.Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh who is the convicted murderer of Daniel Pearl spent several years in this prison in connection with 1994 Kidnappings of Western tourists in India.

Ripun Bora, the education minister of Assam Tarun Gogoi-led Cong. government, who is the main accused of one Daniel Topno murder case, was arrested by CBI briving CBI official on June 3, 2008, sent to this jail on June 7, 2008.

brekkie also brekky
  noun Brit. informal breakfast. 

Chalkie: teacher 

  noun Brit. informal money.

skite :informal

    Austral./NZ boast.
    move or glance off a surface quickly and forcefully.
    Austral./NZ a boaster. boasting or boastfulness.
    Scottish a drinking bout. 

  noun informal
    courage and determination.
    Brit. vulgar slang semen.
    Austral. a sexually attractive person.

C16 (in the sense 'a spark, vestige'): of unknown origin; perh. a blend of spark1 and obs. funk 'spark'. 

From hooray, which was also used in Australia to mean "goodbye".[1]

pash: informal

  noun dated a brief infatuation.
  verb Austral./NZ kiss and caress amorously. 

adj. great, wonderful (Australian Slang) 

Chutney (UrduچٹنیHindiचटनी caṭnīBengaliচাটনী),

is a term for a variety of sweet and spicy condiments, usually involving a fresh, chopped primary vegetable or fruit with added seasonings. Chutney, as a genre, is often similar to the Pakistani pickle and the salsa of Latin American cuisine, or European relish.

Chutney may be dry or wet; dry chutney is generally in the form of powder. In India, a chutney is often made to be eaten fresh, using whichever strongly-flavored ingredients are locally available at the time. It would not normally contain preserving agents, since it is intended to be consumed quickly after preparation. The Hindi translation of "to make chutney" is a common idiom meaning "to crush". This is because the process of making chutney often involves the crushing of ingredients together.

The use of a stone mortar and pestle is often regarded as vital to create the ideal chutney. It consists of a small stone bowl (called a "kharal" or "khal" in Hindi, Tamil kal கல்), or a flat piece of stone (called a "sil") on which the ingredients are crushed together with a rounded stick of stone or wood (called a "batta", pronounced with a hard 't').

Chutney is more familiar in North America and Europe in a form that can be stored. To this end, vegetable oilvinegar, or lemonjuice are used to enhance keeping its properties.

    a person employed by a nightclub, bar, or pub to prevent troublemakers entering or to eject them from the premises.
    Cricket a ball bowled fast and short so as to rise high after pitching.

The cashew (Anacardium occidentalesyn. Anacardium curatellifolium A.St.-Hil.)
is a tree in the flowering plant familyAnacardiaceae. The plant is native to northeastern Brazil. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew "nuts" (see below) and cashew apples.

It is a small evergreen tree growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly-shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning reddish, with five slender, acutepetals 7 to 15 mm long.

What appears to be the fruit of the cashew tree is an oval or pear-shaped accessory fruit or false fruit that develops from the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as "jocote de marañón", it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm long. It is edible, and has a strong "sweet" smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile, making it unsuitable for transport. It is often used as a flavor in agua fresca.

The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the pseudofruit. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the peduncle expands into the pseudofruit. Within the true fruit is a single seed, the cashew nut. Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the fruit of the cashew is a seed. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing a dermatogenic phenolic resin, urushiol, a potent skin irritant toxin also found in the related poison ivy. Some people are allergic to cashew nuts, but cashews are a less frequent allergen than nuts or peanuts[citation needed]

Originally spread from Brazil by the Portuguese, the cashew tree is now cultivated in all regions with a sufficiently warm and humid climate. It is produced in around 32 countries of the world. The world production figures of cashew crop, published by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), was around 3.1 million tons per annum. The major raw cashew producing countries with their production figures in 2006 (as per the FAO) are Vietnam (941,600 tons), Nigeria (636,000 tons), telugu jedi mamedi(జీడి మామిడి),India called Kaju (573,000 tons), Brazil (236,140 tons) and Indonesia (122,000 tons).

One cashew tree produces between 200 and 300 cashew nuts in a year.

The world’s total area under the cultivation of cashew is around 33,900 km². India ranks first in area utilized for cashew production, though its yields are relatively low. The world’s average yield is 817 pounds per acre (916 kg/hectare) of land.

Collectively, Vietnam, Nigeria, India and Brazil account for more than 90% of all cashew kernel exports.

Charminar (Hindiचार मीनारTeluguచార్ మినార్Urduچار مینار, meaning "Four Towers" or "Mosque of the fourminarets")
is one of the most important monuments in the city of Hyderabad, capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh,India

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah built the monument in 1591 shortly after he had shifted his capital from Golkonda to what now is known as Hyderabad[1]. Legend has it that the building honors a promise Quli Qutb Shah made to Allah. He supposedly had prayed for the end of a plague and vowed that he would build a masjid on that very place. The masjid became popularly known as Charminar because of its four (Farsi char = four) minarets (Minar (Arabic manara) = spire/tower), which possibly honor the first four caliphs of Islam. The actual masjid occupies the top floor of the four-story structure. (Madame Blavatsky asserted that each of the floors was meant for a separate branch of learning .)[2]There is a legend that an underground tunnel connects the palace at Golconda to Charminar to give the Qutb Shahi royal family an escape route should they need it during a siege. However, the exact location of the tunnel is unknown.

In 1591 while laying the foundation of Charminar, Quli prayed: Oh God, bestow unto this city peace and prosperity. Let millions of men of all castes, creeds and religions make it their abode. Like fishes in the water. True to the legend, the city blossomed into a synthesis of two cultures.[citation needed]

The Charminar is a beautiful and impressive square monument. Each side measures 20 m, and each of the corners has a tall, pointed minaret. These four gracefully carved minarets soar to a height of 48.7 m above the ground, commanding the landscape for miles around. Each minaret has four stories, marked by a delicately carved ring around the minaret. Unlike the Taj Mahal, Charminar's four fluted minarets of Charminar are built into the main structure. Inside the minarets 149 winding steps guide the visitor to the top floor, the highest point one can reach, which provides a panoramic view of the city.

Each side of the structure opens into a plaza through giant arches that overlook four major thoroughfares, which once upon a time were royal roads. The arches dwarf other features of the building except the minarets. Each arch is 11 m wide and rises 20 m to the pinnacle from the plinth, which is a large table raised seven or eight feet from the ground with steps that go up to it. Today, the four arches each have a clock, which was installed in 1889.

vault that appears from inside like a dome, supports two galleries within the Charminar, one over another, and above those a terrace that serves as a roof, bordered with a stone balcony. The main gallery has 45 covered prayer spaces with a large open space in front to accommodate more people for Friday prayers.

Built with granite and lime mortar, Charminar is a fine example of the Cazia style of architecture[3]. Locally available granite, sand and lime were used in the construction of Qutb Shahi monuments including Charminar. Lime used for the plaster seems to have been specifically ground and treated to create a durable stucco. Generally shell, lime, jaggery, white of egg, etc. are known to enhance the binding property of lime. The SiO2 /CaO ratio in Charminar’s mortar and plaster (1.61-2.25) indicates that the engineers at that time were probably aware of the necessity of having a higher SiO2 content but were not sure of the value that maximizes the strength of lime cement; today, the usual practice is to have a ratio of 3.0 to 1.

It is said that, during the Mughal Governorship between Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi rule, the South Western minaret "fell to pieces" after being struck by lightning, but "was forthwith repaired" at a cost of Rs 60,000.[citation needed] In 1824, the monument was replastered at a cost of Rs 100,000.

This graceful monument is very beautiful on the inside, and is particularly known for its carvings and moldings. The painstaking details result in a graceful, lace-like look. The Charminar looks particularly spectacular at night when it is illuminated.

The monument overlooks another beautiful and grand mosque called Makkah Masjid. The area surrounding Charminar is also known by same name. A thriving market still lies around the Charminar, attracting people and merchandise of every description. In its heyday, the Charminar market had some 14,000 shops; today the market around the Charminar is crowded with shops which sell glass bangles in rainbow colours.

Venkateshwara (Telugu వెంకటేశ్వరుడు , వెంకన్న, Sanskritवेंकटेश्वर),

also known as VenkatachalapathySrinivasaand Balaji, is a form of the Hindu god Vishnu in India. Venkateshwara means the Lord who destroys the sins of the people. According the Hindu scriptures, Vishnu, out of love towards his devotees, incarnated as Venkateshwaraand appeared for the salvation and upliftment of humanity in this Kali Yuga and is considered the supreme form of Vishnu in this age.[citation needed]

According to the scripture Sthala Purana, the legend of Venkateshwara's Avatara (incarnation) is believed to be as follows:

Once some rishis headed by Kasyapa began to perform a sacrifice on the banks of the Ganges. Sage Narada visited them and asked them why they were performing the sacrifice and who would be pleased by it. Not being able to answer the question, the rishis approachedSage Bhrugu, who according to Vedas is believed to have an extra eye in the sole of his foot. To reach a solution after a direct ascertainment of reality, Sage Bhrigu first went to Satyaloka, the abode of Lord Brahma. At Satyaloka, he found Lord Brahma, reciting the four Vedas in praise of Lord Narayana, with each of his four heads, and attended upon by Saraswati. Lord Brahma did not take notice of Bhrigu offering obeisance. Concluding that Lord Brahma was unfit for worship, Bhrigu left Satyaloka for Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva. At Kailasa, Bhrigu found Lord Siva spending his time pleasantly with Parvati and not noticing his presence. Parvati drew the attention of Shiva to the presence of the sage. Lord Shiva was furious at Bhrigu's intrusion and tried to destroy him. The sage cursed Lord Siva and left forVaikunta, the abode of Lord Vishnu.

At VaikuntaLord Vishnu was reposing on Adisesha with Sri Mahalakshmi in service at His feet. Finding that Lord Vishnu also did not notice him, the sage was infuriated and kicked the Lord on His chest, the place where Mahalakshmi resides. Vishnu, in an attempt to pacify the sage, got hold of legs of the sage and started to press them gently in a way that was comforting to the sage. During this act, he squished the extra eye that was present in the sole of Bhrugu's foot. The extra eye is believed to represent the sage's egotism. The sage then realised his grave mistake and apologized to Vishnu. Thereupon, the sage concluded that Lord Vishnu was the most supreme of the trimurthis and told the rishis the same.

Sri Mahalakshmi was angered by the action of her Lord in apologising to Bhrigu who committed an offence. Out of anger and anguish she left Vaikuntha and resided in Karavirapur now known as Kolhapur. After the departure of Mahalakshmi, a forlorn Lord Vishnu left Vaikunta and took abode in an ant-hill under a tamarind tree, beside a pushkarini on the Venkata Hill, meditating for the return of Lakshmi, without food or sleep. This was the place where Lord took the form of Varaha to rescue Mother Earth form the deep ocean.

Taking pity on Lord Vishnu, Brahma and Maheshwara decided to assume the forms of a cow and its calf to serve Him. Surya, the Sun God informed Mahalakshmi of this and requested her to assume the form of a cowherdess and sell the cow and calf to the king of the Chola country. The king of the Chola country bought the cow and its calf and sent them to graze on the Venkata Hill along with his herd of cattle. Discovering Lord Vishnu on the ant-hill, the cow provided its milk, and thus fed the Lord. Meanwhile, at the palace, the cow was not yielding any milk, for which the Chola Queen chastised the cowherd severely. To find out the cause of lack of milk, the cowherd followed the cow, hid himself behind a bush and discovered the cow emptying her udder over the ant-hill. Incensed over the conduct of the cow, the cowherd aimed a blow with his axe on the head of the cow. However, Lord Vishnu rose from the ant-hill to receive the blow and save the cow. When the cowherd saw the Lord bleed at the blow of his axe, he fell down and died of shock.

The cow returned, bellowing in fright and with blood stains all over her body, to the Chola King. To find out the cause of the cow's terror, the King followed her to the scene of the incident.

The King found the cowherd lying dead on the ground near the ant-hill. While he stood wondering how it had happened, Lord Vishnu rose from the ant-hill and cursed the King saying that he would become an Asura because of the fault of his servant. The King pleaded innocence, and the Lord blessed him by saying that he will be reborn as Akasa Raja and that the curse would end when the Lord will be adorned with a crown presented by Akasa Raja at the time of His marriage withPadmavati. With these words Lord turned into stone form.

Thereafter, Lord Vishnu in the name of Srinivasa, decided to stay in Varaha Kshetra, and requested Sri Varahaswami to grant Him a site for His stay. His request being readily granted, Srinivasa ordained that a pilgrimage to His shrine would not be complete unless it is preceded by a bath in the Pushkarini and darshan of SriVarahaswami, and that puja and naivedyam should be offered to Sri Varaha swami first. Vishnu built a hermitage and lived there, attended to by Vakuladevi who looked after him like a mother.

Sometime later, a King named Akasa Raja who belonged to the Lunar race was ruling over Thondamandalam. Akasa Raja had no heirs, and therefore, he wanted to perform a sacrifice. As part of the sacrifice, he was ploughing the fields when his plough turned up a lotus in the ground. On examining the lotus, the King found a female child in it. The king was happy to find a child even before he performed a sacrifice and carried it to his place and gave it to his Queen to tend it. At that time he heard an aerial voice which said "O King, tend it as your child and fortune will befall you". As she was found in a lotus, the king named her Padmavati. PrincessPadmavati grew up into a beautiful maiden and was attended by a host of maids.

One day, Lord Srinivasa, who was hunting, chased a wild elephant in the forests surrounding the hills. In the elephant's pursuit, the Lord was led into a garden, where Princess Padmavati and her maids were picking flowers. The sight of the elephant frightened the Princess and her maids. But the elephant immediately turned around, saluted the Lord and disappeared into the forest. Lord Srinivasa, who was following on horse back, and saw the frightened maidens. However, He was repulsed with stones thrown at Him by the maids. He returned to the hills in haste, leaving His horse behind. Vakuladevi found him lying on his bed, not interested in anything. The Lord informed her that unless he married Princess Padmavati. The Lord then narrated the story of her (Padmavati’s) previous birth and his promise to wed her. After listening to Srinivasa's story of how he had promised to marry Vedavati in her next birth as Padmavati', Vakuladevi realised thatSrinivasa would not be happy unless he married Padmavati. She offered to go to Akasa Raja and his Queen and arrange for the marriage. On the way she met the maid-servants of Padmavati returning from a Shiva Temple. She learnt from them that Padmavati was also pining for Srinivasa. Vakuladevi went along with the maid servants to the Queen.

Meanwhile, Akasa Raja and his queen Dharanidevi were anxious about the health of their daughter, Padmavathi. They learnt about Padmavathi's love for Srinivasa of Venkata Hill. Akasa Raja consulted Brihaspati about the marriage and was informed that the marriage was in the best interest of both the parties. Kubera lent money to Lord Srinivasa to meet the expenses of the marriage. Lord Srinivasa, along with his consorts and Lord Brahma and Lord Shiva started the journey to the residence of Akasa Raja with his vehicle Garuda. At the palace entrance, Lord Srinivasa was received by Akasa Raja with full honours and taken in procession on a mounted elephant to the palace for the marriage. In the presence of all the Devas, Lord Srinivasa wed Princess Padmavati, thus blessing Akasa Raja.

Together, they lived for all eternity while Goddess Lakshmi, understanding the commitments of Lord Vishnu, chose to live in his heart forever.

Venkateshwara's temple, today, at the top of the seven hills in the place called Tirumala; stands as a special place, commemorating the marriage between the two. Everyday, a kalyana utsavam celebrates the divine union in a celebration that stretches to eternity. Even today, during the Brahmotsavam at the temple, turmeric, kumkum and a sari are sent from the temple to Tiruchanur, the abode of Padmavati. In fact Tirupati is rarely visited without paying a visit to Tiruchanur.

In the light of this background, it has become the favored destination of many newly wed couples who pray for a happy wedding - a wedding like that of Srinivasaand Padmavati.

A tale associated with the temple goes thus: a helper boy called Bala was once wrongly accused of being a thief. He ran for his life when chased by people. He was hit on the head by the mob and his head started bleeding profusely. He ran to the Tirupati temple of Lord Vishnu and ran to the main door of the temple. When the people entered the temple, they couldn't find the boy but saw the head of god's idol bleeding. It was considered that the boy was sheltered and protected byVishnu himself, and the priests put cloth on the idol's head to stop the bleeding.

Tirupati (Teluguతిరుపతి), is a pilgrimage city located in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.

Tirupati is located at the foothills of Tirumala. The city owes its existence to the sacred temple situated on the Tirumala Hills. Tirumala is the abode of Lord Venkateshwara, one of the Avatars of Lord Vishnu, located atop Seshachala hills often called as "Yaedu Kondalu" (seven hills). The temple of Lord Venkateshwara was built by the Tamil king Thondaimaan, and reformed periodically by Cholas and later Telugu Kings. It is the richest and most visited temple (of any faith) in the world forever.[1]

Tirupati has been a city for many years though recognised as a major municipal Corporation (MCT) only recently. Although the district headquarters is 60 km from the city, major government establishments and operations take place in Tirupati alone. The Tirupati Urban Development Authority further expanded its horizon to about 1380 km² with a total population of about 10 lakhs. Tirupati is one of the fastest growing cities in India with IT, BPO and Health industries coming up. It is a major boom for real estate. Tirupati is also emerging into a major educational, entertainment, tourism and a commercial city. Near the bus stand, stands a statue of the great singer Bharatharatna M.S. Subbulakshmi.

Mauritius (pronounced /məˈrɪʃəs/FrenchL’île Maurice IPA[il mɔˈʁis]Mauritian CreoleMaurice), officially theRepublic of Mauritius,

FrenchRépublique de Maurice, is an island nation off the coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about 900 kilometres (560 mi) east of Madagascar. In addition to the island of Mauritius, the Republic includes the islands of St. BrandonRodrigues and the Agalega Islands. Mauritius is part of the Mascarene Islands, with the French island of Réunion 200 km (125 mi) to the southwest and the island of Rodrigues 570 km (350 mi) to the northeast.

The island of Mauritius is renowned for having been the only known home of the dodo. The Dodo is a lesson in extinction. First sighted around 1600 on Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean, the Dodo was extinct less than eighty years later.

Gulab jamun Urduگلاب جامنHindiगुलाब जामुन) (gool-aab jaa-mun) or gulab jambu 

is a popular North Indian,BangladeshiNepaliGujarati and Punjabi sweet dish made of a dough consisting mainly of milk solids (often including double cream and flour) in a sugar syrup flavored with cardamom seeds and rosewater or saffron. In Hindi, the wordGulab means rose and Jamun is a tropical fruit found in India that is purple violet in color, and colors tongue in dark purple color once eaten. The sugar syrup used in it has rose water added and thus it smells like rose, and the shape of gulab jamun is mainly like Jamun, thus it has been given this name.

A similar Arabic dessert is luqmat al-qadi (Arabic for judge's bread). Like the South Asian gulab jamun, rosewater syrup is often used; however saffron syrup and honey are also common.

Gulab Jamun is most often eaten as a dessert, and usually eaten at festivals or major celebrations, such as marriages and Diwali (the Indian festival of light).

The word Dacoity

is the anglicized version of the Indian word ḍakaitī (historically spelled dakaiteeHindi डकैती or Urdu ڈکیتی or Bangla ডাকাতি) which comes from ḍākū(historically spelled dakooHindi: डाकू, Urdu: ڈاکو, meaning "armed robber") or Bangla ḍakat (ডাকাত).

  • Dacoity (Hindi: डकैती ḍakaitīUrdu: ڈکیتی ḍakaitīBangla: ডাকাতি ḍakati) means "armed robbery".
  • Dacoit (Hindi: डकैत ṭakaitUrdu: ڈکیت ṭakaitBangla: ডাকাত ḍakat) means "a bandit". According to OED ("A member of a class of robbers in India and Burmah, who plunder in armed bands.") Dacoits existed in Burmah as well as India, and Rudyard Kipling's fictional Private Mulvaney was hunting Burmese "dacoits" in The Taking of Lungtungpen. The term was also applied, according to OED, to "pirates who formerly infested the Ganges between Calcutta and Burhampore".

The most infamous member of the Dacoit "profession" was probably India's Phoolan Devi.[citation needed] But the title of the most legendary dacoit is held by Daku Man Singh and Nirbhay Singh Gujjar who was killed recently.[citation needed] Between 1939 and 1955, Daku Man Singh had notched up 1,112 dacoities, 185 murders, countless ransom kidnappings.[citation needed] He was involved in 90 police encounters and had killed 32 policemen.[citation needed]

In recent times, Veerappan became one of the most famous [1] who was on the run for 20 years.

In Madhya Pradesh State, women belonging to a village defense group have been issued gun permits to fend off Dacoity. The Chief Minister of the district, Shivraj Singh Chouhan, recognized the role the women had played in defending their villages without guns. He stated that he wanted to enable these women to better defend both themselves and their villages, and issued the gun permits to advance this goal[2].


is a beam supported on only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted bymoment and shear stress.[1] Cantilever construction allows for overhanging structures without external bracing. Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs.

This is in contrast to a simply supported beam such as those found in a post and lintel system. A simply supported beam is supported at both ends with loads applied between the supports.

Cantilevers are widely found in construction, notably in cantilever bridges and balconies (see corbel). In cantilever bridges the cantilevers are usually built as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section. The Forth Bridge in Scotland is a famous example of a cantilever truss bridge.

Temporary cantilevers are often used in construction. The partially constructed structure creates a cantilever, but the completed structure does not act as a cantilever. This is very helpful when temporary supports, or falsework, cannot be used to support the structure while it is being built (e.g., over a busy roadway or river, or in a deep valley). So some truss arch bridges (see Navajo Bridge) are built from each side as cantilevers until the spans reach each other and are then jacked apart to stress them in compression before final joining. Nearly all cable-stayed bridges are built using cantilevers as this is one of their chief advantages. Many box girder bridges are built segmentally, or in short pieces. This type of construction lends itself well to balanced cantilever construction where the bridge is built in both directions from a single support.

In an architectural application, Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater used cantilevers to project large balconies. The roof built over the stands at Old Trafford Football Ground uses a cantilever so that no supports will block views of the field.


was originally a brand of tyre produced by the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company at the end of the 19th century, taking its name from John Dunlop. The brand is now used for many other products either derived from rubber or with a looser connection to rubber.

Ownership of the brand has become fragmented over the years. Three main events contributed to this fragmentation:

  • in 1899, the Dunlop company sold its Australian branch. As a result, Dunlop Australia acquired the rights to the brand in Australia.[1]
  • in 1985, Dunlop Rubber sold the rights to the Dunlop brand of automobile tyre.
  • between 1996 and 1998, BTR plc (which acquired Dunlop Rubber in 1985) sold a number of companies which used the Dunlop brand for their products.


  • Dunlop Tyres and Dunlop Tires:
    • owned in Europe and North America by Dunlop Tyres, a joint venture 75% owned by Goodyear and 25% by Sumitomo Rubber Industries (the result of a 1999 deal)[2]
    • owned 100% by Goodyear in Australia (the result of deals in 1987 and 2006 with Dunlop Australia)[1]
    • owned by Sumitomo in Asia (the result of the acquisition from Dunlop Rubber in 1985)
    • owned in India by the Ruia Group[3] (the result of the sale of Dunlop India in 1984 to the Jumbo Group, which sold it on in 2005)
    • owned in South Africa by Apollo Tyres Ltd of India (the result of a sale by BTR in 1998)[4]


  • Dunlop Aircraft Tyres, an independent company in Birmingham, England (sold by BTR in 1996; 75% of the company is currently owned by AAC Capital Partners)[5]
  • Dunlop Aerospace, including Dunlop Equipment and Dunlop Precision Rubber, owned by Meggitt plc[6] (the result of a sale by BTR in 1998)

Industrial products

  • Dunlop Conveyor Belting, part of Fenner Dunlop Conveyor Belting Worldwide, providing a range of conveyor belt systems[7]
  • Dunlop Extrusions, a brand of rubber extrusions owned by an independent company in Manchester, England[8]
  • Dunlop Fabrications, a brand of flexible fuel and water tanks owned by Trelleborg AB of Sweden[9]
  • Dunlop Hiflex, a brand of hydraulic hoses and pipes[10]
  • Dunlop Oil & Marine, a brand of rubber hose for marine use, owned by Continental AG of Germany[11]
  • Dunlop Rubber Mouldings, owned by Dunlop Industrial Products, a South African company sold by BTR in 1998[12]

Construction materials

  • Dunlop Adhesives, a brand of tile adhesive and grouting, owned by Ardex GmbH (the result of a sale by BTR in 1996)
  • Dunlop Industries of Kenya, who produce PVC floor tiles (sold by BTR in 1996)[13]


  • Dunlopillo, a brand of mattress and latex foam for furniture, owned in the UK by Hilding Anders[14] and elsewhere by Dunlop Latex Foam Ltd (sold by BTR in 1997)[15]

Sporting goods

  • Dunlop Sport, a brand of golf and tennis equipment, sporting footwear and other products