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The only laws of matter are those which our minds fabricate, and the only laws of mind are fabricated for it by matter. - James Clerk Maxwell -
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  1. 2008.06.15
    Astrobiology and Origin of Life (천체생물학과 생명의 기원)
  2. 2008.04.25
    퀀텀 변동에서 가속 우주까지 [Cosmology From Quantum Fluctuations to the Accelerating Universe - Distinguished Leaders in Science EP#1]
  3. 2008.04.25
    유로파, 우주생물학, 천체생물학의 재발견 [Europa and the Rebir th of Exobiology - Distinguished Leaders in Science EP#8]
  4. 2008.04.25
    태양과 지구와의 관계 The Sun-Earth Connection in the Space Age [Distinguished Leaders in Science EP#9]
  5. 2008.04.10
    Parallel Universes (평행우주) PT#01-Intro

고딩들을 위한 Univ. of California State Summer School 강연 동영상.  어려운 주제를 좀더 쉽게 접근할 수 있도록 만든 intermediate 버전입니다.

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퀀텀 변동에서 가속 우주까지 [Cosmology From Quantum Flu ctuations to the Accelerating Universe]
Di stinguished Leaders in Science 첫번째 강의 동영상

Today the Universe consists of galaxies moving away from one another in a pattern of motion that indicates a big-bang beginning. We can trace the history of the Universe back to the hot quark soup that existed a fraction of a second after the beginning. Armed with bold ideas that are rooted in the deep connections between the inner space of elementary particles and the outer space of the cosmos, we are trying to extend our understanding back to an even earlier time when galaxies existed only as quantum fluctuations in the fuzzy subatomic world. If these ideas are correct, then our big bang was a burst of expansion called inflation, galaxies are held together by the gravity of elementary particles left over from the big bang, and the expansion of the Universe is speeding up because of an odd form of energy that pervades the Universe. A flood of observations made possible by technological advances are putting these ideas to the test, and in the process have presented us with new puzzles, like the fact that the Universe is speeding up, not slowing down. 

Dr. Michael Turner, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago

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유로파, 우주생물학, 천체생물학의 재발견[Europa and the Rebir th of Exobiology]
Distinguished Leaders in Science 8번째 강의 파일이다.

지난 과거를 통해 우리는 엄청난 천체생물학의 발전을 가져왔으며 향후 20년 내로 더더욱 엄청난 발전을 가져올 것이다. 화성의 영상을 스트리밍으로 받을 것이며 목성의 위성인 유로파아래 있을 법한 바다를 탐색할 것이다. 근데 어케 유로파가 지구 말구 은하계에서 두번째로 바다가 있을 거라 확신하냐구??? 
The past decade has seen remarkable progress in exobiology, and the coming century holds even greater promise. Within the next twenty years, we will have catalogs of hundreds if not thousands of planets around other stars, we will establish a kind of Mars internet with regular video streaming to Earth, and we will have begun to explore the likely ocean underneath the icy crust of Jupiter's moon Europa. How certain is it that Europa really harbors the solar system's second ocean, and what are the prospects for life there? How should we go about exploring this world, and looking for life? 

Christopher Chyba, Carl Sagan Chair for the Study of Life in the Universe, SETI Institute

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태양과 지구와의 관계 The Sun-Earth Connection in the Space Age.
Distinguished Leaders in Science 9번째 강의 파일이다.

태양의 변화가 어떻게 지구에 영향을 미칠까? 태양의 내부 환경에서 부터 껍떼기 코로나에 이르기까지의 지구에 끼칠 영향은....
How do solar phenomena affect you and influence "space weather" near Earth? Learn more about recent discoveries - from beneath the solar surface to its outer corona - and their possible role in the Earth-Sun connection. 

Dr. Richard Canfield, Department of Physics, Montana State University

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유명한 BBC Horizon 시리즈...어렸을때 부터 계속 느껴 왔지만 우리나란 왜 이딴 프로그램을 못만들까?!....남들은 시리즈로도 만들어 내는데...
단순한 국력의 차이나 방송국의 차이라고 하기엔 뭔가 허전함이 남는다...경제만 살리면 된다는 사기가 먹히는 세상이니까....궁민들의 수준도 글코..

여기 나래이션 하는 일본계 하바드 출신 카쿠 박사를 봐도 글코.....심란하다 (카쿠 박사가 설명은 참 잘한다, 47년 생이라는데 그 나이에도..헐~)...
우리나라에 똑똑하다는 사람들은 다 어디 가 있는 건지.....

우주선을 쏜 것도 아니구 기껏 이제서 우주인 하나 관광 보내고 언론에선 넘 장사를 한다...특히 SBS..이건 드라마 방송국도 아니구...

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사용자 삽입 이미지
talks parallel universes

Marco: How do you see the experimental confirmation on superstring theory ? How long will it remain an unproven theory?
Dr Michio Kaku:
The direct proof of superstring theory may lie far in the future, However, indirect measurements may come fairly soon. Most science, in fact, is done with indirect experiments. For example, we have never visited the Sun but we know that is made out of Hydrogen because we have echoes from the Sun called sunlight. Similarly, we hope to find echoes from the tenth dimension. For example, in Geneva Switzerland, a large Hadron Collider will be turned on and we hope to find particles or super-particles which would be the next lowest vibration of the superstring. Furthermore, dark matter which makes up 90% of the Universe maybe made up of super-particles .

Keith Marsden: Could I exist in a parallel universe and if so would my life take a different course?
Dr Michio Kaku:
There are many kinds of parallel universe. If we speak of quantum parallel universe then there may be resemblance to our Universe, except with one quantum difference. For example, if a cosmic ray went through Hitler's mother's womb and Hitler was never born, we could be one quantum event away from a parallel universe without World War 2. However, if the parallel universe is in another dimension then the laws of Physics themselves will change and atoms maybe unstable. And two kinds of matter exist - in those universes, Physics may look entirely different from our own.

Josh Conway: How important is time to the M-Theory?
Dr Michio Kaku:
M-Theory is defined in eleven dimensional space time with ten dimensions of space and one dimension of time. So M-Theory only has one time. However, there is some speculation that F-Theory may contain two dimensions of time and ten dimensions of space. So that there would be two times in a twelve dimensional universe. However, F-Theory is only held by a minority of physicists.

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Mike Garman: Your theory explains the start of our Universe, but where do the membranes come from that started it?
Dr Michio Kaku:
We believe that a multiverse of universes exist like bubbles floating in Nothing. Each bubble forms as a quantum fluctuation in Nothing. We feel that as this bubble forms its matter is dominated by strings and membranes which create musical notes which we see as particles of the universe.

Ross McManus: Can dark matter and black holes be explained using the M-Theory?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Partially yes. In M-Theory, black hole solutions exist not only as a remnant of a dying star; they also exist as subatomic particles. So there is an unity between black holes and elementary particles. Also, the next vibration of the string includes a photino or particle which may make up most of the dark matter in the Universe. So dark matter maybe a higher musical note on the string.

Pieter Verhoeven: What is meant by "Bubbles of Nothing"?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Boiling water is a purely quantum mechanical event. If water molecules were like billiard balls, water would never boil. Water boils and a tiny fluctuation occurs in water. Similarly, universes maybe created all the time, even as we speak, due to fluctuation in Nothing. In other words, universes maybe for free and Big Bangs, happen all the time like in boiling water.

Peter Wentworth: What are the possibilities for a second Big Bang collision? Is it theoretically possible?
Dr Michio Kaku:
There is some speculation that gamma-ray bursters release the greatest amount s of energy since the Big Bang. There is some speculation that they maybe powerful enough to open a hole in our bubble Universe, so that our Universe buds into two universes, creating a baby universe which leaves the mother universe. However, until M-Theory becomes better understood we cannot prove that baby universes can be created from our Universe.

John Reyes: Dr Kaku, how can one travel in time when time does not exist? And if it did, would you know which way to point your ship?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Time is like a river. It bends and flows around the Universe. Time may also have whirlpools and also may fork into two rivers. In this way, time travel might be possible. However, you have to have the Plank energy to create a time machine or the energy of a Black Hole. That is far beyond our technology.

Dr: Do eleven dimensions mean there are other life forms of any kind?
Dr Michio Kaku:
We do not know if life-forms can exist in another dimension. However, atoms as we know them may not be stable in other dimensions. If we replace Newton's Inverse square law with an inverse tube law then solar systems and atoms fall apart. However, new forms of matter may exist in higher dimensions.

Viva Wright: Is there the possibility that unconscious knowledge is transferred between universes?
Dr Michio Kaku:
At the present time, physicist believe that consciousness is confined to the human brain so telepathy between universes may not be possible. However, the problem of consciousness in a quantum-theory is still an unresolved problem. M-Theory is still a quantum-theory.

Nick Rimmington Do you think this theory may explain why the rate of expansion of the universe is increasing?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Nobody knows how to calculate dark energy which is causing the Universe to accelerate. The best hope is M-Theory, but no-one knows how to solve M-Theory or the Big Bang. Maybe one of the viewers of this programme will be inspired to use M-Theory to explain the accelerating Universe.

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Adam Kirsch: If space is the 5th dimension what are the 6th or 7th?
Dr Michio Kaku:
If the fifth dimension vibrates, then ripples on the fifth dimension are visible as light. If the other dimensions vibrate, then the ripples are seen as the nuclear force, so the forces of the universe can be viewed as ripples in hyper-space.

Christopher Sayer: Can a new membrane be created from two membranes colliding?
Dr Michio Kaku:
When two membranes or two strings collide, they create new membranes and new string. The diagrams which tell us how membranes and strings collide are like the Feynman diagrams that we see in quantum-theory. Our bodies are symphonies of vibrating strings and membranes. The Chemistry of our body is a consequence of the collision of these membranes and strings.

Simon Lawrence: If the Universe is constantly expanding, when does this sign the end of our known Universe?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Our Universe will die in ice rather than fire. Our Universe eventually, trillions and trillions of years away from now, will reach near absolute zero making intelligent life impossible. Therefore, we may have to escape into hyper-space if we are to survive the death of the Universe.

Tom Brown: In theory, is it possible to use the space between the Universes, leaving and re-entering, in order to travel many light years within our Universe, but without time having passed?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Einstein's equations give us a possibility to leap into hyper-space through a worm-hole to reach another universe. However, we don't have enough energy to open up such a hole and we don't know how stable such a hole might be.

Brian Whaley: If time has only one dimension how can one deal with the issue of how "fast" time passes - and the difference between "time of day" and time as duration?
Dr Michio Kaku:
M-Theory is only mathematically consistent with one dimension of time and ten dimensions of space. M-Theory is mathematically inconsistent for any other combination.

Sam Jenkins: if our Universe is contained within a "bubble", what makes up the surface?
Dr Michio Kaku:
The surface of this bubble is the Universe itself. People often ask where did the Big Bang take place? The Big Bang did not take place on the surface of the bubble, it took place inside the bubble, i.e. in hyper-space.

Phil Williams: What is hyper-space?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Hyper-space is space beyond three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. Historically, scientists thought that hyper-space could not exist, now we believe that in hyper-space there is enough room to unify all fundamental forces. Four dimensions of space time are too small to unify the four fundamental forces

Chris Norrie: Do you believe in infinity?
Dr Michio Kaku:
There are many types of infinity. The age of our universe may increase without limit because our universe is accelerating. In space, however, our universe may be finite in hyper-space but infinite in three dimension just like a bubble. So the farthest object in the universe would be the back of your head.

Patrick Clarke: Are there infinite particles with the same x,y,z & time values as those in my body?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Well, in M-Theory there are an infinite number of particles. Each one represents a musical note on a string or membrane, so the atoms of our body are like those of a string. Chemistry is the melodies on these membranes and the universe is a symphony of vibrating membranes and string.

William Joseph: Does M-theory say anything about the idea that the speed of light in our universe may be slowing down?
Dr Michio Kaku:
M-Theory reproduces all of Einstein's theory and more. Therefore, the speed of light in a vacuum never changes.

Tony Hall: Does string theory incorporate number theory in its structure?
Dr Michio Kaku:
String theory has gobbled up many branches of Mathematics which has astounded mathematicians. However, there is one branch of Mathematics that seems beyond the reach of string theory which is number theory. For example, we do not find Fermat's last theorem in string theory.

Jean: Could black holes be routes from our Universe to the other parallel universes? Could than be why nothing comes out of them?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Yes, there is a theory that says that universes may have children, via a budding process in which a universe splits into two smaller universes. However this is just a theory, and we will have to wait until M-Theory is further developed to decide whether universes can have children.

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사용자 삽입 이미지
Patrick Clarke: Is the Big Bang where all eleven dimensions have a value of zero?
Dr Michio Kaku:
In one solution of M-Theory, our Universe is a four-dimensional ball floating in eleven dimensions. In the other seven dimensions, there could be other bubbles floating. One theory says that the nearest bubble to our Universe maybe one millimetre away from us. This theory will be tested in Geneva in a few more years.

Nigel: Does the rate of vibration of membranes offer a possible connection between them?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Large membranes may resemble universes like our own floating in eleven dimensional hyper-space. However, tiny membranes can be viewed as subatomic particles whose vibration and interaction give us the laws of Chemistry. Therefore M-Theory unifies subatomic particles and universes.

Trici Shaw: What is the "F" from F-Theory?
Dr Michio Kaku:
F for F-Theory stands for Father. M for M-Theory may stand for Mother, Mystery or Membrane.

Alan Trevitt: If universes are parallel to each other, why does gravity run in only one direction i.e., downwards?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Gravity is caused by the working of space time. Therefore, if we have two bubbles close to each other they will distort the space time surrounding them and feel each others gravity. Therefore, dark matter may be the presence of a neighbouring universe that we cannot see.

Alex Greybrook: How was hyper space discovered?
Dr Michio Kaku:
The Greeks tried to prove 2000 years ago that hyper-space was impossible. However, Vernhard Riemann proved in the 1870s that hyper-space was possible. Then Kaluza in 1921 showed that universes may exist in hyper-space.

Richie Lunt: Although atoms are stable in our dimension would this be this case in others?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Atoms in other dimensions may be unstable because the inverse square law does not hold. However, two forms of stable matter may exist in hyper universes, which are not based on atoms. But, physicists do not know any more than this.

Funky Monkey: Why are the other parallel universe's membranes different shapes. Shouldn't they be the same? Does what happens on the inside effects the universe's physical shape?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Membranes can come in many sizes and many shapes. For example, a zerobrane is a particle, a onebrane is a string, a twobrane may be a membrane and a threebrane maybe a universe.

Zhou Fang: M-Theory may be shown to be mathematically possible, but would we ever be able to prove that it is actually the case?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Experimentally, we hope to find super particles in the next few years with our atom-smashers. However, I believe that if we are smart enough we could solve the theory and then derive all the laws of Chemistry and Physics. That to me would be a proof that M-Theory is correct. So, those experiments are not really necessary. Theory is enough.

Ross Campbell: Where did the energy required to produce membranes in the first instance come from?
Dr Michio Kaku:
The amount of energy necessary to create a bubbled universe is zero. Matter has positive energy, but gravity has negative energy. The sum of the two might be zero. This means that bubbled universes can be created all the time. So the Universe is for free.

Kevin Wan: If the fabric of the Universe is being stretched, does this also mean that the membrane is also being stretched? If so, when will the stretching cease?
Dr Michio Kaku:
In one theory, our Universe is a membrane. We live on the skin of this membrane which is constantly expanding because of dark energy. We think this expansion is accelerating and may go on for ever without limit.

Pimmy: Have any major "flaws" or "gaps" been found in M-theory so far which makes it unable to explain something?
Dr Michio Kaku:
So far, M-Theory has withstood every mathematical challenge. In the past, previous attempts at a theory of everything could be shown to be mathematically inconsistent. M-Theory is the only theory which seems to be mathematically consistent. However, there are many solutions to M-Theory, one of which may be our Universe. No-one has found that one solution yet.

Adrian: I've heard that in other universes time might flow backwards! Is this true?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Not long ago, Stephen Hawking thought that time may go backwards. If the Universe pulsated then during the contraction he thought that time might run backward. However, he has since admitted that he was wrong. Therefore, most physicists do not believe that time will reverse itself in our Universe. If there are time machines, you might be able to reverse time in a small area, but not for the entire Universe.

Trekkie: Is there a possibility of a 12th dimension?
Dr Michio Kaku:
In F-Theory the physicists at Harvard University have proposed a universe with two-times, so that you would have to have two watches on your wrist to tell you what time it is. However, most physicists today do not take F-Theory seriously although it seems compatible with M-Theory. This is still a mystery.

Rob Wood: How does M-theory explain quantum entanglement - is it via the collapsed dimensions?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Quantum entanglement is a problem for all quantum theories including M-Theory. Quantum entanglement says that the Universe is non-local and that information may travel faster than light,. However, no useful information can be sent faster than light by means of quantum entanglement so there are no paradoxes in time.

Bernard Hunt: Is time just the human awareness; a thing that isn't really a dimension?
Dr Michio Kaku:
Space time is an arena on which matter can exist. Therefore, time is a co-ordinate that measures the passing or evolution of an object. Some people have said that time does not exist, which confuses the perception of time with time as a co-ordinate on this arena.

Max Guglia: Apart from empirical speculation, what could be the benefits for humanity of proving the M-Theory?
Dr Michio Kaku:
In the short term, nothing. But when Newton worked out the Force of Gravity, he helped to set into motion the industrial revolution. When Faraday worked out electricity and magnetism he set into motion the electric age. When Einstein wrote down E=MC2he unleashed the nuclear age. Now, we are on the verge of a theory of all forces which may, one day, determine the fate of the human species. Centuries from now, M-Theory, I feel, may eventually determine the destiny of all intelligent life in the Universe.

Horizon Host: Here's our special guest with a final word:
Dr Michio Kaku:
I am proud to be part of this BBC documentary, on the cutting edge of my field - M-Theory. It is absolutely essential that scientists speak to the public about the exciting and revolutionary developments rocking the foundations of modern Physics. Hopefully, one of you viewers will be inspired by this programme to become a physicist, who will eventually complete the M-Theory and answer questions like: 'Is time travel possible?' 'Can we journey to another dimension?' and 'What happened before The Big Bang?'

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